Abstract

We propose a thin and compact concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module, about 20 mm thick, one tenth thinner than those of conventional CPVs that are widely deployed for mega-solar systems, to broaden CPV application scenarios. We achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 37.1% at a module temperature of 25 °C under sunlight irradiation optimized for our module. Our CPV module has a lens array consisting of 10 mm-square unit lenses and micro solar cells that are directly attached to the lens array, to reduce the focal length of the concentrator and to reduce optical losses due to reflection. The optical loss of the lens in our module is about 9.0%, which is lower than that of conventional CPV modules with secondary optics. This low optical loss enables our CPV module to achieve a high energy conversion efficiency.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  5. A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
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  17. L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).
  18. G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, B. Y.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anda, Y.

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antón, I.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Comparative analysis of different secondary optical elements for aspheric primary lenses,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6487–6492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arase, H.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Askins, S.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baca, A. J.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banks, A. R.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baricordi, S.

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

Benítez, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beñítez, P.

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

Bett, A. W.

G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonafede, S.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bower, C. A.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buljan, M.

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

Burroughs, S.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaves, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

Corcoran, C. J.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cvetkovic, A.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Damiano, A.

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

Domínguez, C.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Comparative analysis of different secondary optical elements for aspheric primary lenses,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6487–6492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duda, A.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Duoss, E. B.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elvikis, P.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emery, K. E.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, P. M.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrer Rodríguez, J. P.

G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fidaner, O.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fisher, B.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. J.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fujii, E.

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

Futakuchi, R.

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geddes, J. B.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giebink, N. C.

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayashi, N.

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hernández, M.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herrero, R.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, D.

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishida, H.

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Itou, A.

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jang, W.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, R. H.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. H.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kramer, C. M.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, S.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J. A.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, A.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

McMahon, W. E.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meulblok, B. M.

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miñano, J. C.

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miñanoa, J. C.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mohedano, R.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Motala, M. J.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musio, C.

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

Musio, M.

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

Nakagawa, T.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ottoson, L.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, A.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S. I.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peharz, G.

G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pozzetti, L.

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

Price, J. S.

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockett, A.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabnis, V. A.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sala, G.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Comparative analysis of different secondary optical elements for aspheric primary lenses,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6487–6492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shatford, W.

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, X.

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siefer, G.

G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sorgato, S.

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suarez, F. A.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ueda, D.

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ueda, T.

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Victoria, M.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Comparative analysis of different secondary optical elements for aspheric primary lenses,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6487–6492 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vilaplana, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vincenzi, D.

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

Wang, S.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, J. S.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wiemer, M.

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J. W.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, M.

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, M. S.

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yuen, H.

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamora, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Fidaner, F. A. Suarez, M. Wiemer, V. A. Sabnis, T. Asano, A. Itou, D. Inoue, N. Hayashi, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, and T. Nakagawa, “High efficiency micro solar cells integrated with lens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103902 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Photon. Energy. (1)

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñanoa, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Photovoltaics (1)

H. Arase, A. Matsushita, A. Itou, T. Asano, N. Hayashi, D. Inoue, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, T. Nakagawa, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “A novel thin concentrator photovoltaic with microsolar cells directly attached to a lens array,” J. Photovoltaics 4(2), 709–712 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Itou, T. Asano, D. Inoue, H. Arase, A. Matsushita, N. Hayashi, R. Futakuchi, K. Inoue, M. Yamamoto, E. Fujii, T. Nakagawa, Y. Anda, H. Ishida, T. Ueda, O. Fidaner, M. Wiemer, and D. Ueda, “High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(4S), 04ER01 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. S. Price, X. Sheng, B. M. Meulblok, J. A. Rogers, and N. C. Giebink, “Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

X. Sheng, C. A. Bower, S. Bonafede, J. W. Wilson, B. Fisher, M. Meitl, H. Yuen, S. Wang, L. Shen, A. R. Banks, C. J. Corcoran, R. G. Nuzzo, S. Burroughs, and J. A. Rogers, “Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules,” Nat. Mater. 13(6), 593–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, and J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (3)

G. Peharz, J. P. Ferrer Rodríguez, G. Siefer, and A. W. Bett, “Investigations on the temperature dependence of CPV modules equipped with triple-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 54–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. E. McMahon, K. E. Emery, D. J. Friedman, L. Ottoson, M. S. Young, J. S. Ward, C. M. Kramer, A. Duda, and S. Kurtz, “Fill factor as a probe of current-matching for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells in a concentrator system during outdoor operation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 213–224 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “S. Askins and, G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

W. Jang, S. J. Kim, D. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, A. Park, Y. Park, and J. H. Lee, “Design of partitioned linear Fresnel lens for medium-concentrated PV and its performance,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, P. Beñítez, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, and J. Chaves, “A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator,” SPIE Newsroom3105, (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

E. Brinksmeier, A. Gessenharter, D. Pérez, J. Blen, P. Benítez, V. Díaz, and J. Alonso, “Design and manufacture of aspheric lenses for novel high efficient photovoltaic concentrator modules,” 3rd International Workshop on CPV Session II, Bremerhaven, Germany, October. (2010).

M. Hernández, J. Vilaplana, R. Mohedano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, J. C. Miñano, A. Cvetkovic, W. Shatford, and S. Sorgato, “Maximizing the efficiency of a 4-cell FK module,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems 1616, 191–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Pozzetti, M. Musio, D. Vincenzi, C. Musio, S. Baricordi, and A. Damiano, “A novel cassegrain-type concentrator photovoltaic module: design, prototyping and characterization,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 239–243 (2012).

L. Fu, R. Leutz, and H. Philipp Annen, “Evaluation and comparison of different designs and materials for Fresnel lens-based solar concentrators,” SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications. International Society for Optics and Photonics, (2011).

Manuscript to be submitted.

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells. 57, (Imperial College, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Photograph of a CPV module, (b) schematic cross-sectional image of the CPV module structure, (c) optical microscope image of the solar cell, and (d) schematic cross-section image of the solar cell along line A-A in (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic cross-sectional images of a lens to which a solar cell is attached. In the upper Figure, the blue, yellow, and red lines indicate 400, 665, and 885 nm-wavelength light. In the lower Figure, the blue, yellow, and red regions correspond to regions irradiated with 400 - 665, 665 - 885, and 885 - 1300 nm wavelength light. Arrows show photocurrent flows. (b) The sunlight intensity distribution on the aperture area of the solar cell calculated by ZEMAX (optical simulation software) by ray tracing. In this simulation, the angular distribution of the incident light was uniform in the range of ± 0.25° in consideration of the behavior of sunlight. Red lines show the position of the grid electrode. Each intensity distribution map measures 1.0 mm x 1.0 mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 DNI dependence of PV characteristics. These Figures show the Isc, Voc, η and FF dependence of DNI. Blue dots: module A on 30 July 2014. Red dots: module B on 31 July 2014. The arrows indicate the critical point.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) I-V characteristics of module B. Measurement was carried out on one solar cell in the CPV module whose temperature was maintained at 25 °C by a Peltier setup. (b) The sunlight spectrum was measured when the I-V characteristics were those seen in Fig. 4(a). These data were obtained in Kyoto at 13:42 on 31 July 2014.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The variation of the conversion efficiency of 25 solar cells in the module B, measured on 29 September 2014. SMR was 0.93 - 1.01 during these measurements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The transmittance of the lens array and the anti-reflective coating of a solar cell. The black line shows the transmittance of the lens array. The red line shows the transmittance of the anti-reflective coating of a solar cell.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical loss calculated from transmittance of lens and AR layer on top surface of solar cell

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SMR= I L,top E / I L,bottom E I L,top AM1.5D / I L,bottom AM1.5D ,
L A(k) = n 1 n 2 P(λ)(1 T A ( λ))dλ/ n 1 n 2 P(λ) dλ,
L B(k) = n 1 n 2 P(λ)(1 T B ( λ))dλ/ n 1 n 2 P(λ) dλ,
L (k) = L A(k) + L B(k) L A(k) L B(k) .

Metrics