Abstract

Increasing studies report blue light to possess a potential hazard to the retina of human eyes, secretion of melatonin and artworks. To devise a human- and artwork-friendly light source and to also trigger a “Lighting Renaissance”, we demonstrate here how to enable a quality, blue-hazard free general lighting source on the basis of low color-temperature organic light emitting diodes. With the use of multiple candlelight complementary emitters, the sensationally warm candle light-style emission is proven to be also drivable by electricity. To be energy-saving, highly efficient candle-light emission is demanded. The device shows, at 100 cd m−2 for example, an efficacy of 85.4 lm W−1, an external quantum efficiency of 27.4%, with a 79 spectrum resemblance index and 2,279 K color temperature. The high efficiency may be attributed to the candlelight emitting dyes with a high quantum yield, and the host molecules facilitating an effective host-to-guest energy transfer, as well as effective carrier injection balance.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  4. R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
  8. J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
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  10. J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Quantum efficiency roll-off at high brightness in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235215 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
  20. S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).
  23. H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

2014 (4)

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Shen, M.-S. Lin, and C.-F. Lin, “Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission,” Sci Rep 4, 5307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Quantum efficiency roll-off at high brightness in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235215 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Sato, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Morita, “The effects of exposure in the morning to light of different color temperatures on the behavior of core temperature and melatonin secretion in humans,” Biol. Rhythm Res. 36(4), 287–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for the human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has become a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63(4), 588–596 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

Attia, D.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlier-Salsi, A.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behar-Cohen, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blask, D. E.

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brainard, G. C.

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cesarini, J. P.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.-R.

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. T.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-C.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-T.

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. C.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-C.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-W.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Z.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-H.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-L.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-H.

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiba, T.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y. S.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chou, Y. C.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Enouf, O.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Quantum efficiency roll-off at high brightness in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235215 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garcia, M.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giebink, N. C.

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Quantum efficiency roll-off at high brightness in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235215 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gonmori, E.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Hong, J. H.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. Y.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-Y.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y.-C.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieha, C.-Y.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeong, W. I.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Joers, P.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jou, J. H.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jou, J.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jou, Y. C.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jou, Y.-C.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kido, J.

S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. J.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

Lee, J.

J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. I.

J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, C. J.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, T.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

Li, Y.-J.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. H.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. R.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-F.

P.-C. Shen, M.-S. Lin, and C.-F. Lin, “Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission,” Sci Rep 4, 5307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, M.-S.

P.-C. Shen, M.-S. Lin, and C.-F. Lin, “Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission,” Sci Rep 4, 5307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lockley, S. W.

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martinsons, C.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morita, T.

M. Sato, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Morita, “The effects of exposure in the morning to light of different color temperatures on the behavior of core temperature and melatonin secretion in humans,” Biol. Rhythm Res. 36(4), 287–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Motta, M. E.

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, H. D.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pauley, S. M.

S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for the human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has become a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63(4), 588–596 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, S. H.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, S.-H.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Picaud, S.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, Y.-J.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahoo, S.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

Sakaguchi, T.

M. Sato, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Morita, “The effects of exposure in the morning to light of different color temperatures on the behavior of core temperature and melatonin secretion in humans,” Biol. Rhythm Res. 36(4), 287–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Sato, M.

M. Sato, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Morita, “The effects of exposure in the morning to light of different color temperatures on the behavior of core temperature and melatonin secretion in humans,” Biol. Rhythm Res. 36(4), 287–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, P.-C.

P.-C. Shen, M.-S. Lin, and C.-F. Lin, “Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission,” Sci Rep 4, 5307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, S. M.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.-M.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stevens, R. G.

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, S. J.

S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Su, S.-J.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takeda, T.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, D.

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, M. C.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.-C.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, F. Y.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, F.-Y.

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tseng, J.-R.

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tung, F.-C.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Viénot, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. P.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-C.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-W.

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. Y.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-B.

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. S.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-S.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, R. Z.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, R.-Z.

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoo, K. M.

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. H.

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zissis, G.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

J. H. Jou, R. Z. Wu, H. H. Yu, C. J. Li, Y. C. Jou, S. H. Peng, Y. L. Chen, C. T. Chen, S. M. Shen, P. Joers, and C. Y. Hsieh, “Artificial dusk-light based on organic light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 27–31 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J.-H. Jou, C.-Y. Hsieh, J.-R. Tseng, S.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Jou, J. H. Hong, S.-M. Shen, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, “Candle light-style organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(21), 2750–2757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Chiu, C. P. Wang, R. Y. Wang, and C. Hu, “Efficient, color-stable fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emission layer by vapor deposition from solvent premixed deposition source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193501 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. D. Park, W. I. Jeong, K. M. Yoo, Y. S. Park, and J. J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biol. Rhythm Res. (1)

M. Sato, T. Sakaguchi, and T. Morita, “The effects of exposure in the morning to light of different color temperatures on the behavior of core temperature and melatonin secretion in humans,” Biol. Rhythm Res. 36(4), 287–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

R. G. Stevens, G. C. Brainard, D. E. Blask, S. W. Lockley, and M. E. Motta, “Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 64(3), 207–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. Sasabe, E. Gonmori, T. Chiba, Y.-J. Li, D. Tanaka, S.-J. Su, T. Takeda, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “Wide-energy-gap electron-transport materials containing 3,5-dipyridylphenyl moieties for an ultra-high efficiency blue organic light-emitting device,” Chem. Mater. 20(19), 5951–5953 (2008).
[Crossref]

Isr. J. Chem. (1)

Y. Hu, T. Zhang, J. Chen, D. Ma, and C.-H. Cheng, “Hybrid organic light-emitting diodes with low color-temperature and high efficiency for physiologically-friendly night illumination,” Isr. J. Chem. 54(7), 979–985 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

J. H. Jou, Y. S. Wang, C. H. Lin, S. M. Shen, P. C. Chen, M. C. Tang, Y. Wei, F. Y. Tsai, and C. T. Chen, “Nearly non-roll-off high efficiency fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(34), 12613–12618 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 3, 2974–3002 (2015).

Med. Hypotheses (1)

S. M. Pauley, “Lighting for the human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has become a public health issue,” Med. Hypotheses 63(4), 588–596 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (4)

J. Lee, J. I. Lee, J. Y. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Stable efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by host layer engineering,” Org. Electron. 10(8), 1529–1533 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, P.-W. Chen, Y.-L. Chen, Y.-C. Jou, J.-R. Tseng, R.-Z. Wu, C.-Y. Hsieha, Y.-C. Hsieh, P. Joers, S.-H. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, F.-C. Tung, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “OLEDs with chromaticity tunable between dusk-hue and candle-light,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 47–54 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-C. Tang, P.-C. Chen, Y.-S. Wang, S.-M. Shen, B.-R. Chen, C.-H. Lin, W.-B. Wang, S.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, F.-Y. Tsai, C.-W. Wang, C.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Wang, “Organic light-emitting diode-based plausibly physiologically-friendly low color-temperature night light,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1349–1355 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Quantum efficiency roll-off at high brightness in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235215 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(4), 239–257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci Rep (1)

P.-C. Shen, M.-S. Lin, and C.-F. Lin, “Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission,” Sci Rep 4, 5307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Smith, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2258344/Scientists-discover-LED-lights-damaging-valuable-masterpieces-artists-including-Van-Gogh-C-zanne.html .

IEA final report on potential health issues on SSL, September (2014).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of the energy-levels of the candle light-style OLED devices containing (a) four black bod radiation complementary emitters, namely, blue, red, green, and yellow, and (b) three emitters, namely, red, green, and yellow, dispersed in two EMLs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effect of EML thickness and nano CML on (b) power efficiency and (b) current efficiency of the PEDOT:PSS based devices, (c) effect of EML thickness on the power efficiency and current efficiency of the HAT-CN based candle light-style OLEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effect of (a) EML thickness and (b) nano CML on the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of PEDOT:PSS based candle light-style OLEDs, and (c) effect of EML thickness on EL-spectra of HAT-CN based OLED devices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effects of emissive layer (EML) thickness and nano carrier modulation layer (CML) composition on the color temperature (CT), spectrum resemblance index (SRI), power efficiency (PE), and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the candle light-style OLEDs.

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