Abstract

This study proposes a slim planar apparatus that can function as a color-separation backlight for the color-filter-free liquid-crystal display (LCD) system. It has a two-level folded configuration comprising a composite light-guide plate (LGP) and light-emitting diode (LED) couplers. The LED couplers generate the highly collimated beams of the three primaries (R, G, and B) that enter the composite LGP at their separate angles; then the three primaries were uniformly extracted out of the top surface of the LGP at their respective angles differing in the longitudinal direction. In the simulation, a lenticular lens array was used to focus the three primaries onto their respective subpixels; each pixel of the LC panel comprised three subpixels, identical to the traditional layout. The proposed apparatus can be applied in backlight modules with a maximal diagonal dimension of 39 inches and a thickness of 15.5 mm. The simulation results indicated that the spatial uniformities of the three primaries ranged between 84% and 87%, the area of the color gamut of the LCD system was 99.5% of that defined by the National Television System Committee, and the total optical efficiency was 41%, as the double of a traditional LCD system. Thus, the proposed apparatus improved the total optical efficiency markedly and provided the LCD system with a wide color gamut.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Kobayashi, S. Mikoshiba, and S. Lim, LCD Backlights (Wiley, 2009).
  2. C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Dammann, “Color separation gratings,” Appl. Opt. 17(15), 2273–2279 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. H. Lin and M. H. Lu, “Design of Hybrid Grating for Color Filter Application in Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8B), 5414–5418 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Xu, H. P. Urbach, and D. K. de Boer, “Simulations of birefringent gratings as polarizing color separator in backlight for flat-panel displays,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5789–5800 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. H. Lin, C. H. Lee, and M. H. Lu, “Dye-less color filter fabricated by roll-to-roll imprinting for liquid crystal display applications,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12397–12406 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. G. Son, J. S. Gwag, J. H. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Analysis of a color-matching backlight system using a blazed grating and a lenticular lens array,” Appl. Opt. 51(36), 8615–8620 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. C. Chen, H. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. H. Lee, and M. H. Lu, “Color separation system with angularly positioned light source module for pixelized backlighting,” Opt. Express 18(2), 645–655 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Travis, T. Large, N. Emerton, and S. Bathiche, “Collimated light from a waveguide for a display backlight,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19714–19719 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. J. Jeon, G. Park, J. S. Gwag, J. H. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Color-matching liquid crystal display using a lenticular lens array,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(4), 345–349 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. H. Lee, “Angularly positioned LED-based spatial-temporal color separation system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19109–19118 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. C. Teng and L. W. Tseng, “Slim planar apparatus for converting LED light into collimated polarized light uniformly emitted from its top surface,” Opt. Express 22(S6Suppl 6), A1477–A1490 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).
  17. T. C. Teng, W. S. Sun, L. W. Tseng, and W. C. Chang, “A slim apparatus of transferring discrete LEDs’ light into an ultra-collimated planar light source,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26972–26982 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

T. C. Teng, W. S. Sun, L. W. Tseng, and W. C. Chang, “A slim apparatus of transferring discrete LEDs’ light into an ultra-collimated planar light source,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26972–26982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

1978 (1)

Bathiche, S.

Caputo, R.

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W. C.

Chen, C. H.

P. C. Chen, H. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. H. Lee, and M. H. Lu, “Color separation system with angularly positioned light source module for pixelized backlighting,” Opt. Express 18(2), 645–655 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. C.

Cornelissen, H. J.

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dammann, H.

de Boer, D. K.

de Boer, D. K. G.

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sio, L.

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emerton, N.

Fuchida, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

Gwag, J. S.

Hornix, E. J.

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y. T.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. P.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jak, M. J. J.

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, H. J.

Kwon, J. H.

Large, T.

Lee, C. H.

Lee, J. H.

Lin, F. C.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. H.

Lin, S. C.

C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. W.

C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, M. H.

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

Nishimura, A.

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

Park, G.

Shieh, H.-P. D.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Son, C. G.

Sun, W. S.

Takemoto, H.

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

Takita, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

Teng, T. C.

Ting, C. J.

C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
[Crossref]

Travis, A.

Tseng, L. W.

Urbach, H. P.

Xu, M.

Yamagata, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IDW (1)

K. Nakamura, T. Fuchida, K. Yamagata, A. Nishimura, T. Takita, and H. Takemoto, “Optical design of front diffuser for collimated backlight and front diffusing system,” IDW 11, 475–478 (2011).

J. Displ. Techno. (1)

C. W. Liu, C. H. Lee, C. J. Ting, T. H. Lin, and S. C. Lin, “Roll-to-Roll Process-Based Sub-Wavelength Grating for a Color-Separation Backlight,” J. Displ. Techno. 9(7), 561–564 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Displ. Technol. (1)

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A field sequential color LCD based on color field arrangement for color breakup and flicker reduction,” J. Displ. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

M. J. J. Jak, R. Caputo, E. J. Hornix, L. de Sio, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Color-separating backlight for improved LCD efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 803 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. H. Lin and M. H. Lu, “Design of Hybrid Grating for Color Filter Application in Liquid Crystal Display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8B), 5414–5418 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

M. Xu, H. P. Urbach, and D. K. de Boer, “Simulations of birefringent gratings as polarizing color separator in backlight for flat-panel displays,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5789–5800 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, M. J. J. Jak, E. J. Hornix, D. K. G. de Boer, and H. J. Cornelissen, “Short period holographic structures for backlight display applications,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10540–10552 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lin, C. H. Lee, and M. H. Lu, “Dye-less color filter fabricated by roll-to-roll imprinting for liquid crystal display applications,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12397–12406 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lee, “Angularly positioned LED-based spatial-temporal color separation system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19109–19118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Teng and L. W. Tseng, “Slim planar apparatus for converting LED light into collimated polarized light uniformly emitted from its top surface,” Opt. Express 22(S6Suppl 6), A1477–A1490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Chen, H. H. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. H. Lee, and M. H. Lu, “Color separation system with angularly positioned light source module for pixelized backlighting,” Opt. Express 18(2), 645–655 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Travis, T. Large, N. Emerton, and S. Bathiche, “Collimated light from a waveguide for a display backlight,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19714–19719 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Teng, W. S. Sun, L. W. Tseng, and W. C. Chang, “A slim apparatus of transferring discrete LEDs’ light into an ultra-collimated planar light source,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26972–26982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Kobayashi, S. Mikoshiba, and S. Lim, LCD Backlights (Wiley, 2009).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of a LC panel operating with a color-separation backlight.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Longitudinal spatial distributions of illuminance above the top surface of the LGP for light propagating at various angles with the horizontal in the LGP.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Design concept of a composite LGP for two primaries propagating in different directions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Design of a composite LGP accommodating three primaries that separately propagate and emerge in different directions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 V-cut CPC for mixing and collimating light: (a) top view; (b) multiple V-cut CPCs are arranged side by side to form a laterally extended light outlet.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Two-level folded structure of the apparatus comprising a composite LGP and three layers of V-cut CPCs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Scheme of the optical model of the apparatus: (a) perspective view and (b) side view (not proportionally scaled).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectrum characteristics of the dichroic coating layers and primaries from LEDs.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Propagation directions of the light guided into the composite LGP by the LED coupler.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Intensity of the three primaries emerging from the composite LGP: intensity diagrams for the (a) red, (b) green, and (c) blue primaries; (d) angular distributions of the three primaries in the longitudinal direction.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Illumination of the three primaries above the top surface of the composite LGP: (a) illumination diagrams for the three primaries and (b) normalized illuminance along the central longitudinal line of the diagrams.in (a)
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Structure of a unit cell of the LC panel operating with a color-separation backlight.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Illumination on the pixels of the LC panel: (a) Normalized illuminance along the longitudinal; (b) illumination on RGB subpixels.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Evaluation of the color gamut of the color-filter-free LCD with the color-separation backlight.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Transmissive spectrum of the color filter.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the composite LGP in the simulation.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the LC panel in the simulation.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Coordinates of the color gamut in the CIE 1931 diagram.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Optical efficiency of the color-filter-free LCD system regarding the three primaries.

Equations (4)

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tanθ= t x ,
n PMMA sin(90 θ 1 ) n OA ,
n PMMA sin(90 θ 2 )< n OA .
η total = η backlight × T LC × ( P R (λ)+ P G ( λ )+ P B ( λ ))× T color ( λ )dλ ( P R (λ)+ P G ( λ )+ P B ( λ ))dλ .

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