Abstract

Room temperature lasing from electrically pumped n-type doped Ge edge emitting devices has been observed. The edge emitter is formed by cleaving Si-Ge waveguide heterodiodes, providing optical feedback through a Fabry-Perot resonator. The electroluminescence spectra of the devices showed optical bleaching and intensity gain for wavelengths between 1660 nm and 1700 nm. This fits the theoretically predicted behavior for the n-type Ge material system. With further pulsed electrical injection of 500 kA/cm2 it was possible to reach the lasing threshold for such edge emitters. Different lengths and widths of devices have been investigated in order to maintain best gain-absorption ratios.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H. Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1738–1740 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).
  19. R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-n junctions,” Solid-State Electron. 6(5), 405–408 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  20. E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

2012 (3)

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

1963 (1)

R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-n junctions,” Solid-State Electron. 6(5), 405–408 (1963).
[Crossref]

Abrosimov, N. V.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aguirov, T.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aniel, F.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arguirov, T.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Boucaud, P.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Carroll, L.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

Cheng, S. L.

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, S.

de Kersauson, M.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dutt, B.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

El Kurdi, M.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishman, G.

Friedli, P.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frigerio, J.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gollhofer, M.

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

Hall, R. N.

R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-n junctions,” Solid-State Electron. 6(5), 405–408 (1963).
[Crossref]

Isa, F.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isella, G.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakomin, R.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kirfel, O.

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kittler, M.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Lu, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Nam, D.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

Neuenschwander, S.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishi, Y.

Oehme, M.

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

Patel, N.

Romagnoli, M.

Rouifed, M. S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

S. L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H. Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Direct bandgap narrowing in Ge LED’s on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2206–2211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

Shambat, G.

Sigg, H.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

Sun, X.

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

Werner, J.

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

Widmann, D.

Yu, H. Y.

Yuan, Z.

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

Zerounian, N.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

E. Kasper, M. Oehme, J. Werner, T. Aguirov, and M. Kittler, “Direct bandgap luminescence from Ge on Si pin diodes,” Front. Optoelectron. 5(3), 256–260 (2012).
[Crossref]

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium on Silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, Z. Yuan, B. Dutt, and K. Saraswat, “Toward an efficient Germanium-on-Silicon laser: ultimate limits of tensile strain and n-type doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 109, JTh2A (2013).

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Faist, “Direct-Gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silicon (1)

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Solid State Phenomena (1)

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena 178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-n junctions,” Solid-State Electron. 6(5), 405–408 (1963).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Schmid, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Kaschel, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electroluminescence of unstrained and tensile strained Ge-on-Si LEDs,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2012), pp. 135–137.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic MBE layer stacks of the investigated LED.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic cross section of a vertical LED (a) and a lateral edge emitter (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cross sectional view SEM image of the front facet of the edge emitter with a width of 1.6 µm (left). Enlarged SEM view of the active zone of the edge emitter (right).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EL intensity as function of wavelength for vertical LED with a mesa radius of 80 µm at different injection current densities at room temperature.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EL measurements versus wavelength of sample 2 at 280 K at different injection current densities.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) EL measurements of lateral edge emitters with different lengths and a width of 6.4 µm of sample 2 at 280 K with continuous injection. (b) EL spectra of a 6.4 µm x 35 µm lateral edge emitter under high injection currents (OSA resolution 5 nm). Inset: Change of intensity of the Fabry-Perot resonance ΔI normalized to the total intensity I as function of injection current.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 EL intensity as function of wavelength for different injection current densities in a 380 µm long and 1,6 µm wide edge emitter. Narrow laser pulses at wavelengths between 1675 nm and 1685 nm are evident for 510 kA/cm2. Linewidth of the 1682 nm pulse is Δλ = 1,1 nm. The inset shows the integral EL intensity as function of current density.

Equations (2)

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m= 2l n eff λ .
Δλ= 2l n eff m( m+1 ) λ 2 2l n eff .

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