Abstract

We demonstrated a laser depth imaging system based on the time-correlated single-photon counting technique, which was incorporated with a low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), operated at the wavelength of 1550 nm. A sub-picosecond time-bin width was chosen for photon counting, resulting in a discrete noise of less than one/two counts for each time bin under indoor/outdoor daylight conditions, with a collection time of 50 ms. Because of the low-jitter SNSPD, the target signal histogram was significantly distinguishable, even for a fairly low retro-reflected photon flux. The depth information was determined directly by the highest bin counts, instead of using any data fitting combined with complex algorithms. Millimeter resolution depth imaging of a low-signature object was obtained, and more accurate data than that produced by the traditional Gaussian fitting method was generated. Combined with the intensity of the return photons, three-dimensional reconstruction overlaid with reflectivity data was realized.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (1)

L. Sjöqvist, M. Henriksson, P. Jonsson, and O. Steinvall, “Time-correlated single-photon counting range profiling and reflectance tomographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(2), 187–197 (2014).

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Schwarz, “Mapping the world in 3D,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 429–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boisvert, J.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Buller, G.

Buller, G. S.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1,550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2266–2268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, S. J.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collins, R. J.

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cova, S.

J. Massa, G. Buller, A. Walker, G. Smith, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. Wallace, “Optical design and evaluation of a three-dimensional imaging and ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1063–1070 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dauler, E. A.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Photon-counting multikilohertz microlaser altimeters for airborne and spaceborne topographic measurements,” J. Geodyn. 34(3–4), 503–549 (2002).
[Crossref]

Della Frera, A.

Dorenbos, S.

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, S. N.

Entwistle, M.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Fereidouni, F.

Fernández, V.

Gemmell, N. R.

Gerritsen, H. C.

Ghioni, M.

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

Gulinatti, A.

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

Harkins, R. D.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

He, Y. H.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henriksson, M.

L. Sjöqvist, M. Henriksson, P. Jonsson, and O. Steinvall, “Time-correlated single-photon counting range profiling and reflectance tomographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(2), 187–197 (2014).

Hernandez-Marin, S.

Hiskett, P. A.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hong, W.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Isshiki, T.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Itzler, M. A.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

Jiang, X.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Jonsson, P.

L. Sjöqvist, M. Henriksson, P. Jonsson, and O. Steinvall, “Time-correlated single-photon counting range profiling and reflectance tomographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(2), 187–197 (2014).

Kerman, A. J.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kong, W.

Krichel, N. J.

Lamb, R. A.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Liu, D.

Liu, D. K.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. Y.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

MacKinnon, G. R.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Massa, J.

McCarthy, A.

A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1,550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2266–2268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

McDonald, P.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

Owens, M.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Patel, K.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rangwala, S.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rech, I.

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reitsma, K.

Ren, M.

Ren, X.

Ren, X. M.

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

Ridley, K. D.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ruggeri, A.

Salisbury, M.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Scarcella, C.

Schwarz, B.

B. Schwarz, “Mapping the world in 3D,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 429–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sjöqvist, L.

L. Sjöqvist, M. Henriksson, P. Jonsson, and O. Steinvall, “Time-correlated single-photon counting range profiling and reflectance tomographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(2), 187–197 (2014).

Slomkowski, K.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, G.

Smith, G. R.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Steinvall, O.

L. Sjöqvist, M. Henriksson, P. Jonsson, and O. Steinvall, “Time-correlated single-photon counting range profiling and reflectance tomographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(2), 187–197 (2014).

Sudharsanan, R.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Sung, R.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

Tosi, A.

Umasuthan, M.

Walker, A.

Wallace, A.

Wallace, A. M.

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2266–2268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Warburton, R. E.

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Xie, X.

Xie, X. M.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. K. W.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Yang, X. Y.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

You, L.

You, L. X.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, L.

S. Chen, L. You, W. Zhang, X. Yang, H. Li, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Dark counts of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector under illumination,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10786–10793 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. J.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. X.

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

L. Sjöqvist, M. Henriksson, P. Jonsson, and O. Steinvall, “Time-correlated single-photon counting range profiling and reflectance tomographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(2), 187–197 (2014).

AIP Adv. (1)

L. X. You, X. Y. Yang, Y. H. He, W. X. Zhang, D. K. Liu, W. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, S. J. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Geodyn. (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Photon-counting multikilohertz microlaser altimeters for airborne and spaceborne topographic measurements,” J. Geodyn. 34(3–4), 503–549 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Schwarz, “Mapping the world in 3D,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 429–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal Feedback In Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

G. S. Buller, A. McCarthy, X. M. Ren, N. R. Gemmell, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, M. G. Tanner, A. M. Wallace, S. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, and R. H. Hadfield, “Depth imaging at kilometer range using time-correlated single-photon counting at wavelengths of 850 nm and 1560 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8460, 84601I (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Yuan, R. Sudharsanan, J. Boisvert, X. Bai, P. McDonald, T. Isshiki, W. Hong, M. Salisbury, C. Hu, M. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “High-performance InP Geiger-mode SWIR avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200P (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083112 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of 1550 nm laser depth imaging system based on a TCSPC module using SNSPD. M1 and M2, high-reflectivity gold mirrors with 25-mm diameter; MMF, mutimode fiber; SMF, single-mode fiber; SYNC, synchronous trigger signal of the laser source.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized instrumental response of the system with a TJ of 44-ps (FWHM).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Time correlation results from the targets of different surface separations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Integrated photon numbers with logarithmic coordinates at different locations of the target, and (b) the corresponding locations on the imaging target. The optical image of the PVC panda was taken by the first author (H ZHOU) using an optical camera.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The weakest signal counts distinguishable in the system in the 3.3-ns observation window with a 50-ms collection time. (b) Background noise counts recorded by the TCSPC system in outdoor daylight with a collection time of 50 ms.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 200 × 220 pixel depth profile measurements on the PVC toy from a stand-off distance of 2.5 m. (a) Image reconstructed from the raw data using the highest channel of the recorded return histograms. (b) Image reconstructed using the peaks of the Gaussian approximation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Close-up photograph of the target object. (b) Reflectivity reconstruction of the target with the common logarithm of the return photon numbers. (c) and (d), 3D reconstructions of the front and lateral views overlaid with reflectivity data.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 3D reconstructions of the front (a) and lateral views (b) overlaid with reflectivity data in outdoor measurement.

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