Abstract

A technique for monitoring and evaluating the performance of on-orbit calibration for satellite ocean color sensors has been developed. The method is based on the sensor on-orbit vicarious calibration approach using in situ ocean optics measurements and radiative transfer simulations to predict (calculate) sensor-measured top-of-atmosphere spectral radiances. Using this monitoring method with in situ normalized water-leaving radiance nLw(λ) data from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in waters off Hawaii, we show that the root-cause for an abnormal inter-annual difference of chlorophyll-a data over global oligotrophic waters between 2012 and 2013 from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is primarily due to the VIIRS on-orbit calibration performance. In particular, VIIRS-produced Sensor Data Records (SDR) (or Level-1B data) are biased low by ~1% at the wavelength of 551 nm in 2013 compared with those in 2012. The VIIRS calibration uncertainty led to biased low chlorophyll-a data in 2013 by ~30–40% over global oligotrophic waters. The methodology developed in this study can be implemented for the routine monitoring of on-orbit satellite sensor performance (such as VIIRS). Particularly, long-term Chl-a data over open oceans can also be used as an additional source to evaluate ocean color satellite sensor performance. We show that accurate long-term and consistent MOBY in situ measurements can be used not only for the required system vicarious calibration for satellite ocean color data processing, but also can be used to characterize and monitor both the short-term and long-term sensor on-orbit performances.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

S. Son and M. Wang, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of the photosynthetically available radiation Kd(PAR) for global open ocean and coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 250–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. Eplee, K. R. Turpie, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “On-orbit calibration of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite for ocean color applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 1984–2006 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit characterization of the VIIRS solar diffuser and solar diffuser screen,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 236–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (6)

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref]

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Uprety, C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, A. Wu, and X. Shao, “Radiometric intercomparison between Suomi-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous nadir overpass in the low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(12), 2720–2736 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Doelling, D. Morstad, B. R. Scarino, R. Bhatt, and A. Gopalan, “The characterization of deep convective clouds as an invariant calibration target and as a visible calibration technique,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 51(3), 1147–1159 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. McCarthy, R. W. Gould, J. Richman, C. Kearney, and A. Lawson, “Impact of aerosol modle selection on water-leaving radiance retrievals from satellite ocean color imagery,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3638–3665 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, “Vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors at two coastal sites,” Appl. Opt. 49(5), 798–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Helder, B. Basnet, and D. L. Morstad, “Optimized identification of worldwide radiometric pseudo-invariant calibration sites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 527–539 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Uprety and C. Cao, “A Comparison of the Antarctic Dome C and Sonoran Desert Sites for the Cal/Val of Visible and Near Infrared Radiometers,” Proc. SPIE 7811, 781106 (2010).

H. Zhang and M. Wang, “Evaluation of sun glint models using MODIS measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(3), 492–506 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. R. Doelling, G. Hong, D. Morstad, R. Bhatt, A. Gopalan, and X. Xiong, “The characterization of deep convective cloud albedo as a calibration target using MODIS reflectances,” Proc. SPIE 7862, 78620I (2010).

2009 (3)

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 47(8), 2510–2518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009), doi:.
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005), doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005), doi:.
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

D. R. Doelling, L. Nguyen, and P. Minnis, “On the use of deep convective clouds to calibrate AVHRR data,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 281–289 (2004), doi:.
[Crossref]

G. Chander, D. L. Helder, B. L. Markham, J. D. Dewald, E. Kaita, K. J. Thome, E. Micijevic, and T. A. Ruggles, “Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 42(12), 2747–2760 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, M. Weinreb, and H. Xu, “Predicting simultaneous nadir overpasses among polar-orbiting meteorological satellites for the intersatellite calibration of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(4), 537–542 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (6)

C. Cao and A. Heidinger, “Inter-comparison of the longwave infrared channels of MODIS and AVHRR/NOAA-16 using simultaneous nadir observations at orbit intersections,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 306–316 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. K. Heidinger, C. Cao, and J. T. Sullivan, “Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer reflectance channels,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4702 (2002).

D. L. Smith, C. T. Mutlow, and R. C. Nagaraja, “Calibration monitoring of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 by use of stable terrestrial sites,” Appl. Opt. 41(3), 515–523 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances: a comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2-3), 497–504 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: Accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23(13), 2693–2702 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67(3), 348–359 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7887–7897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4850–4862 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, “Selection and characterization of Saharan and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58(1), 101–114 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

W. F. Staylor, “Degradation rates of the AVHRR visible channel for the NOAA 6, 7, and 9 spacecraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7(3), 411–423 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1983 (2)

Ahmad, Z.

Ahmed, S.

Ahn, J. H.

Angal, A.

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R.

S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, M. Wang, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Radiometric calibration of ocean color satellite sensors using AERONET-OC data,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23385–23401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005), doi:.
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W.

X. Xiong, J. A. Esposito, J. Q. Sun, C. H. Pan, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Degradation of MODIS optics and its reflective solar bands calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 62–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Basnet, B.

D. L. Helder, B. Basnet, and D. L. Morstad, “Optimized identification of worldwide radiometric pseudo-invariant calibration sites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 527–539 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhatt, R.

D. R. Doelling, D. Morstad, B. R. Scarino, R. Bhatt, and A. Gopalan, “The characterization of deep convective clouds as an invariant calibration target and as a visible calibration technique,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 51(3), 1147–1159 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Doelling, G. Hong, D. Morstad, R. Bhatt, A. Gopalan, and X. Xiong, “The characterization of deep convective cloud albedo as a calibration target using MODIS reflectances,” Proc. SPIE 7862, 78620I (2010).

Blonski, S.

S. Uprety, C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, A. Wu, and X. Shao, “Radiometric intercomparison between Suomi-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous nadir overpass in the low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(12), 2720–2736 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Briottet, X.

H. N. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, “Selection and characterization of Saharan and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58(1), 101–114 (1996).
[Crossref]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Butler, J.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, C.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Uprety, C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, A. Wu, and X. Shao, “Radiometric intercomparison between Suomi-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous nadir overpass in the low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(12), 2720–2736 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Uprety and C. Cao, “A Comparison of the Antarctic Dome C and Sonoran Desert Sites for the Cal/Val of Visible and Near Infrared Radiometers,” Proc. SPIE 7811, 781106 (2010).

C. Cao, M. Weinreb, and H. Xu, “Predicting simultaneous nadir overpasses among polar-orbiting meteorological satellites for the intersatellite calibration of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(4), 537–542 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. K. Heidinger, C. Cao, and J. T. Sullivan, “Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer reflectance channels,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4702 (2002).

C. Cao and A. Heidinger, “Inter-comparison of the longwave infrared channels of MODIS and AVHRR/NOAA-16 using simultaneous nadir observations at orbit intersections,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 306–316 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chander, G.

C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chander, D. L. Helder, B. L. Markham, J. D. Dewald, E. Kaita, K. J. Thome, E. Micijevic, and T. A. Ruggles, “Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 42(12), 2747–2760 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, T.

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, M.

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

Cikanek, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clark, D. K.

Cosnefroy, H. N.

H. N. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, “Selection and characterization of Saharan and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58(1), 101–114 (1996).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22(23), 3751–3758 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dewald, J. D.

G. Chander, D. L. Helder, B. L. Markham, J. D. Dewald, E. Kaita, K. J. Thome, E. Micijevic, and T. A. Ruggles, “Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 42(12), 2747–2760 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doelling, D. R.

D. R. Doelling, D. Morstad, B. R. Scarino, R. Bhatt, and A. Gopalan, “The characterization of deep convective clouds as an invariant calibration target and as a visible calibration technique,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 51(3), 1147–1159 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Doelling, G. Hong, D. Morstad, R. Bhatt, A. Gopalan, and X. Xiong, “The characterization of deep convective cloud albedo as a calibration target using MODIS reflectances,” Proc. SPIE 7862, 78620I (2010).

D. R. Doelling, L. Nguyen, and P. Minnis, “On the use of deep convective clouds to calibrate AVHRR data,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 281–289 (2004), doi:.
[Crossref]

Du, K.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005), doi:.
[Crossref]

Efremova, B.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eplee, R. E.

Esposito, J. A.

X. Xiong, J. A. Esposito, J. Q. Sun, C. H. Pan, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Degradation of MODIS optics and its reflective solar bands calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 62–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. H.

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Foster, R.

Fox, N.

C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

R. E. Eplee, K. R. Turpie, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “On-orbit calibration of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite for ocean color applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 1984–2006 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using an ocean surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5649–5666 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances: a comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fulbright, J.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Geng, X.

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4850–4862 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A.

Goldberg, M. D.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gopalan, A.

D. R. Doelling, D. Morstad, B. R. Scarino, R. Bhatt, and A. Gopalan, “The characterization of deep convective clouds as an invariant calibration target and as a visible calibration technique,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 51(3), 1147–1159 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Doelling, G. Hong, D. Morstad, R. Bhatt, A. Gopalan, and X. Xiong, “The characterization of deep convective cloud albedo as a calibration target using MODIS reflectances,” Proc. SPIE 7862, 78620I (2010).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2-3), 497–504 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7887–7897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27(5), 862–871 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, and W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22(1), 20–36 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gould, R. W.

S. C. McCarthy, R. W. Gould, J. Richman, C. Kearney, and A. Lawson, “Impact of aerosol modle selection on water-leaving radiance retrievals from satellite ocean color imagery,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3638–3665 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guenther, B.

X. Xiong, J. A. Esposito, J. Q. Sun, C. H. Pan, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Degradation of MODIS optics and its reflective solar bands calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 62–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Harding, J. L. W.

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009), doi:.
[Crossref]

Heidinger, A.

C. Cao and A. Heidinger, “Inter-comparison of the longwave infrared channels of MODIS and AVHRR/NOAA-16 using simultaneous nadir observations at orbit intersections,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 306–316 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heidinger, A. K.

A. K. Heidinger, C. Cao, and J. T. Sullivan, “Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer reflectance channels,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4702 (2002).

Helder, D. L.

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Morstad, D. L.

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Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

S. Son and M. Wang, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of the photosynthetically available radiation Kd(PAR) for global open ocean and coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 250–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit characterization of the VIIRS solar diffuser and solar diffuser screen,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 236–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite solar diffuser calibration and its challenges using a solar diffuser stability monitor,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8571–8584 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, M. Wang, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Radiometric calibration of ocean color satellite sensors using AERONET-OC data,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23385–23401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang and M. Wang, “Evaluation of sun glint models using MODIS measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(3), 492–506 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 47(8), 2510–2518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009), doi:.
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Detection of turbid waters and absorbing aerosols for the MODIS ocean color data processing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110(2), 149–161 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1535–1547 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15722–15733 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4122–4128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45(35), 8951–8963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(11), 3196–3205 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005), doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: Accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23(13), 2693–2702 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances: a comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2-3), 497–504 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and S. W. Bailey, “Correction of sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS Ocean and Atmosphere Products,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4790–4798 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67(3), 348–359 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weinreb, M.

C. Cao, M. Weinreb, and H. Xu, “Predicting simultaneous nadir overpasses among polar-orbiting meteorological satellites for the intersatellite calibration of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(4), 537–542 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weng, F.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Werdell, J.

Werdell, P. J.

Wu, A.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Uprety, C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, A. Wu, and X. Shao, “Radiometric intercomparison between Suomi-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous nadir overpass in the low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(12), 2720–2736 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Uprety, C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, A. Wu, and X. Shao, “Radiometric intercomparison between Suomi-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous nadir overpass in the low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(12), 2720–2736 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

D. R. Doelling, G. Hong, D. Morstad, R. Bhatt, A. Gopalan, and X. Xiong, “The characterization of deep convective cloud albedo as a calibration target using MODIS reflectances,” Proc. SPIE 7862, 78620I (2010).

X. Xiong, J. A. Esposito, J. Q. Sun, C. H. Pan, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Degradation of MODIS optics and its reflective solar bands calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 62–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

C. Cao, M. Weinreb, and H. Xu, “Predicting simultaneous nadir overpasses among polar-orbiting meteorological satellites for the intersatellite calibration of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(4), 537–542 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang and M. Wang, “Evaluation of sun glint models using MODIS measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(3), 492–506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, “Vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors at two coastal sites,” Appl. Opt. 49(5), 798–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (23)

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
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M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1535–1547 (2007).
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H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, and W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22(1), 20–36 (1983).
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H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
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M. Wang, “Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45(17), 4122–4128 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite solar diffuser calibration and its challenges using a solar diffuser stability monitor,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8571–8584 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit characterization of the VIIRS solar diffuser and solar diffuser screen,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 236–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. Eplee, K. R. Turpie, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “On-orbit calibration of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite for ocean color applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 1984–2006 (2015).
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F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, “Vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors at two coastal sites,” Appl. Opt. 49(5), 798–810 (2010).
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D. L. Smith, C. T. Mutlow, and R. C. Nagaraja, “Calibration monitoring of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer-2 by use of stable terrestrial sites,” Appl. Opt. 41(3), 515–523 (2002).
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R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
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B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
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M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances: a comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
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H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27(5), 862–871 (1988).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
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H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7887–7897 (1997).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
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M. Wang and S. W. Bailey, “Correction of sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS Ocean and Atmosphere Products,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4790–4798 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45(35), 8951–8963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using an ocean surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5649–5666 (2007).
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Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
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D. L. Helder, B. Basnet, and D. L. Morstad, “Optimized identification of worldwide radiometric pseudo-invariant calibration sites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 527–539 (2010).
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C. Cao, S. Uprety, J. Xiong, A. Wu, P. Jing, D. Smith, G. Chander, N. Fox, and S. Ungar, “Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 36(5), 498–513 (2010).
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Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
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M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005), doi:.
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (7)

D. R. Doelling, D. Morstad, B. R. Scarino, R. Bhatt, and A. Gopalan, “The characterization of deep convective clouds as an invariant calibration target and as a visible calibration technique,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 51(3), 1147–1159 (2013).
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M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(11), 3196–3205 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Detection of ice and mixed ice-water pixels for MODIS ocean color data processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 47(8), 2510–2518 (2009).
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V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
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G. Chander, D. L. Helder, B. L. Markham, J. D. Dewald, E. Kaita, K. J. Thome, E. Micijevic, and T. A. Ruggles, “Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 42(12), 2747–2760 (2004).
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M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: Accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23(13), 2693–2702 (2002).
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M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (3)

C. Cao, M. Weinreb, and H. Xu, “Predicting simultaneous nadir overpasses among polar-orbiting meteorological satellites for the intersatellite calibration of radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(4), 537–542 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Uprety, C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, A. Wu, and X. Shao, “Radiometric intercomparison between Suomi-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands using simultaneous nadir overpass in the low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(12), 2720–2736 (2013).
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M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009), doi:.
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
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R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
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J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (4)

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
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M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 13463–13475 (2013).
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C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013), doi:.
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

H. Zhang and M. Wang, “Evaluation of sun glint models using MODIS measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(3), 492–506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. Sun, A. Angal, X. Xiong, H. Chen, X. Geng, A. Wu, T. Choi, and M. Chu, “MODIS RSB calibration improvements in Collection 6,” Proc. SPIE 8528, 852890N (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiong, J. A. Esposito, J. Q. Sun, C. H. Pan, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Degradation of MODIS optics and its reflective solar bands calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 62–70 (2001).
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S. Uprety and C. Cao, “A Comparison of the Antarctic Dome C and Sonoran Desert Sites for the Cal/Val of Visible and Near Infrared Radiometers,” Proc. SPIE 7811, 781106 (2010).

C. Cao and A. Heidinger, “Inter-comparison of the longwave infrared channels of MODIS and AVHRR/NOAA-16 using simultaneous nadir observations at orbit intersections,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 306–316 (2002).
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D. R. Doelling, L. Nguyen, and P. Minnis, “On the use of deep convective clouds to calibrate AVHRR data,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 281–289 (2004), doi:.
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D. R. Doelling, G. Hong, D. Morstad, R. Bhatt, A. Gopalan, and X. Xiong, “The characterization of deep convective cloud albedo as a calibration target using MODIS reflectances,” Proc. SPIE 7862, 78620I (2010).

Remote Sens. (1)

S. C. McCarthy, R. W. Gould, J. Richman, C. Kearney, and A. Lawson, “Impact of aerosol modle selection on water-leaving radiance retrievals from satellite ocean color imagery,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3638–3665 (2012).
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Remote Sens. Environ. (9)

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison of MODIS-Aqua and VIIRS-derived mean Chl-a data over global oligotrophic waters (with depth > 1 km) for (a) time series of mean Chl-a of MODIS-Aqua (2002–2013) compared with VIIRS (2012–2013) (8-day mean) and (b) Chl-a comparisons only for years of 2012 and 2013 (daily mean), showing significant differences in 2013 between VIIRS-derived Chl-a and those from MODIS-Aqua. Note that the anomalous high VIIRS Chl-a values in early 2012 were caused by the initial VIIRS calibration errors, and were excluded in the gain analysis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The derived gain factor g(λ, t) as a function of time (6-month median) from 2012 to 2013 for different spectral bands (a) MODIS 412 nm and VIIRS 410 nm, (b) MODIS and VIIRS 443 nm, (c) MODIS 488 nm and VIIRS 486 nm, and (d) MODIS and VIIRS 551 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Results of ∆g(λi, λj, t) (%) derived from 6-month g(λ, t) values for the two-year period of 2012 and 2013 for (a) MODIS and VIIRS ∆g(443, 551, t) and (b) MODIS ∆g(488, 551, t) and VIIRS ∆g(486, 551, t).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effects of errors (from –20% to +20%) in the two-band normalized water-leaving reflectance ratio (input to the Chl-a algorithm) on the satellite-derived Chl-a data using the VIIRS Chl-a algorithm.

Equations (9)

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L t ( λ )= L r ( λ )+ L A ( λ )+t( λ ) L wc ( λ )+T( λ ) L g ( λ )+t( λ ) L w ( λ ),
L t ( λ )= L r ( λ )+ L A ( λ )+t( λ ) L wc ( λ )+t( λ ) L w ( λ ).
g( λ )= L t ( C ) ( λ ) / L t ( M ) ( λ ) ,
L t ( C ) ( λ,t )=g( λ,t ) L t ( M ) ( λ,t )= g ( T ) ( λ )[ 1+Δ( λ,t ) ] L t ( M ) ( λ,t )
Δ( λ,t )= [ g( λ,t ) g ( T ) ( λ ) ] / g ( T ) ( λ ) = Δg( λ,t ) / g ( T ) ( λ ) ,
L t ( C ) ( λ,t )=[ 1+Δ( λ,t ) ] g ( T ) ( λ ) L t ( M ) ( λ,t )=[ 1+Δ( λ,t ) ] L t ( T ) ( λ,t ),
Chl-a [ 1Δ( λ j ,t ) ] L t ( T ) ( λ j ,t ) / [ 1Δ( λ i ,t ) ] L t ( T ) ( λ i ,t ) . [ 1+( Δ( λ i ,t )Δ( λ j ,t ) ) ] L t ( T ) ( λ j ,t ) / L t ( T ) ( λ i ,t )
ΔChl-a[ Δg( λ i ,t )Δg( λ j ,t ) ].
Δg( λ i , λ j ,t )=Δg( λ i ,t )Δg( λ j ,t )=[ g( λ i ,t )g( λ j ,t ) ][ g ( T ) ( λ i ) g ( T ) ( λ j ) ],

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