Abstract

Using the fast measurement of a binary transmission matrix and a digital micromirror device, we demonstrate high-speed interferometric focusing through highly dynamic scattering media with binary intensity modulation. The scanning of speckles for reference optimization gives stable focusing, which can be used for focusing through a fast changing media or two dimensional scanning through a slowly changing scattering media. The system allows dynamic focusing at 12.5 Hz with 1024 input modes, and more than 60 times intensity enhancement. It was tested with a moving diffuser, a mouse brain and skull tissue. The experiment with a live drosophila embryo shows its potential in compensating dynamic scattering in live biological tissue.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Goorden, J. Bertolotti, and A. P. Mosk, “Superpixel-based spatial amplitude and phase modulation using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17999–18009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and P. Kner, “Binary wavefront optimization using a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. 16(12), 125704 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (5)

2011 (5)

2010 (6)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Demixing light paths inside disordered metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(1), 67–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

A. Hedayat and W. D. Wallis, “Hadamard matrices and their applications,” Ann. Stat. 6(6), 1184–1238 (1978).
[Crossref]

Aegerter, C. M.

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Akbulut, D.

Azucena, O.

Beaurepaire, E.

Bertolotti, J.

Betzig, E.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bifano, T.

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light through optical disordered media: transmission matrix approach,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123021 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botcherby, E. J.

Bromberg, Y.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bronner, M. E.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, D.

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. C.

Chen, T. W.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

Conkey, D. B.

Crest, J.

Cui, M.

Davidson, N.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

Débarre, D.

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engerer, P.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, B.

Fink, M.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light through optical disordered media: transmission matrix approach,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123021 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friesem, A. A.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, M.

Garcia, D.

Germain, R. N.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gigan, S.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light through optical disordered media: transmission matrix approach,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123021 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girkin, J.

Goorden, S. A.

Ha, J.

Hedayat, A.

A. Hedayat and W. D. Wallis, “Hadamard matrices and their applications,” Ann. Stat. 6(6), 1184–1238 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, S.

Huisman, T. J.

Jang, J.

Jang, W.

Ji, N.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kerlin, A.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kissel, M.

Kner, P.

X. Zhang and P. Kner, “Binary wavefront optimization using a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. 16(12), 125704 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kotadia, S.

Kubby, J.

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Demixing light paths inside disordered metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(1), 67–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light through optical disordered media: transmission matrix approach,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123021 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

Liu, R.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsh, P.

Milkie, D. E.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misgeld, T.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, J.

Mosk, A. P.

Mumm, J.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niv, E.

Nixon, M.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

Norton, A.

Oh, W. Y.

Olivier, N.

Park, J. H.

Park, Y.

Paxman, R.

Piestun, R.

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light through optical disordered media: transmission matrix approach,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123021 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saxena, A.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Small, E.

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Srinivas, S.

Stockbridge, C.

Sullivan, W.

Sun, W.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Z.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, X.

Toussaint, K.

van Putten, E. G.

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I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Demixing light paths inside disordered metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(1), 67–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vos, W. L.

Wallis, W. D.

A. Hedayat and W. D. Wallis, “Hadamard matrices and their applications,” Ann. Stat. 6(6), 1184–1238 (1978).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

Welch, A. J.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wilson, T.

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and P. Kner, “Binary wavefront optimization using a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. 16(12), 125704 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zuo, Y.

Ann. Stat. (1)

A. Hedayat and W. D. Wallis, “Hadamard matrices and their applications,” Ann. Stat. 6(6), 1184–1238 (1978).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

X. Zhang and P. Kner, “Binary wavefront optimization using a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. 16(12), 125704 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, R. Liu, D. E. Milkie, W. Sun, Z. Tan, A. Kerlin, T. W. Chen, D. S. Kim, and N. Ji, “Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo,” Nat. Methods 11(10), 1037–1040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. E. Milkie, A. Saxena, P. Engerer, T. Misgeld, M. E. Bronner, J. Mumm, and E. Betzig, “Rapid adaptive optical recovery of optimal resolution over large volumes,” Nat. Methods 11(6), 625–628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Nixon, O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, A. A. Friesem, Y. Silberberg, and N. Davidson, “Real-time wavefront shaping through scattering media by all-optical feedback,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 919–924 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light through optical disordered media: transmission matrix approach,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123021 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, “Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1123–1130 (2003).
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M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cui, “A high speed wavefront determination method based on spatial frequency modulations for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2989–2995 (2011).
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D. Akbulut, T. J. Huisman, E. G. van Putten, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing light through random photonic media by binary amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4017–4029 (2011).
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D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
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C. Stockbridge, Y. Lu, J. Moore, S. Hoffman, R. Paxman, K. Toussaint, and T. Bifano, “Focusing through dynamic scattering media,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15086–15092 (2012).
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X. Tao, J. Crest, S. Kotadia, O. Azucena, D. C. Chen, W. Sullivan, and J. Kubby, “Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15969–15982 (2012).
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J. Jang, J. Lim, H. Yu, H. Choi, J. Ha, J. H. Park, W. Y. Oh, W. Jang, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Complex wavefront shaping for optimal depth-selective focusing in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2890–2902 (2013).
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A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, E. Niv, D. B. Conkey, and R. Piestun, “Real-time resilient focusing through a bending multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12881–12887 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Demixing light paths inside disordered metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(1), 67–80 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Goorden, J. Bertolotti, and A. P. Mosk, “Superpixel-based spatial amplitude and phase modulation using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17999–18009 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. A. Kubby, ed., Adaptive Optics for Biological Imaging (CRC, 2013).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Chap. 2, 8–75.

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: MOV (15142 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (8810 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (8821 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (8808 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (3911 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (8858 KB)     

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of binary intensity modulation. (a) Focusing through scattering samples without modulation. A reference electric field ERef at the target is the sum of electric fields coming from all channels. (b) After measuring the binary transmission matrix (TM), an enhanced focus at the target is achieved by blocking the channels which have destructive interference with ERef. (c) The combination of the reference and Hadamard basis is displayed on the DMD. The amplitude at the output, | E RHn | 2 , can be used to calculate the binary TM (Section 2.1). Higher reference intensity gives a more accurate measurement. By scanning the speckles around the target, the maximum reference intensity is achieved at the target before measurement of the binary TM.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The relationship between the estimation error and the reference intensity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relationship between the sample number, m, and the expectation value of the maximum reference intensity Ε( I max / I ) .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for interferometric focusing by binary measurement of the transmission matrix. The laser output from a HeNe laser (wavefront length λ = 633) is expanded by the lenses L1 and L2 and limited by an iris (I1). The beam covers the whole aperture of the DMD and is relayed by lenses L3 and L4 to a scanner. The unwanted high order beam is blocked by another iris (I2). The beam is further relayed by lenses L5 and L6 and focused on the sample by an objective lens (O1). The diffuse light after the sample is collected by another objective lens (O2) and focused on the PMT and a CCD camera by lens L7. The beam is divided by a 10/90 beam splitter (SB). A pinhole (PH) is installed in front of the PMT to collect the light only from the target.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Timing graph of the signal from PMT during system operation (a) and an enlarged time graph for one correction (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Focusing through a ground glass diffuser. (a) The speckle pattern on the image plane without intensity modulation. (b) The binary pattern projected on the DLP for intensity modulation. (c) The focus in the image plane after intensity modulation. (d) Intensity enhancement for different mode settings and comparison with the theoretical enhancement calculated in [29]. Error bars represent the standard error over 10 measurements. Scale bars, 5 µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Scanning the focus through a ground glass diffuser. Without modulation, the speckle pattern is shown at the back of the ground glass (a). After applying the binary intensity modulation at each pixel on the image plane, the improvement at each pixel depends on the reference intensity (b). By applying the reference optimization, the improvement becomes more uniform throughout the field (c). The histogram of the enhancement in these two cases is shown in (d). Scale bars, 5μm. (Media 1)
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Determination of the decorrelation distance of the samples. The normalized cross-correlations (NCC) between the images of the samples at the original position and the ones at different distances are calculated for mouse brain tissue with a thickness of 300μm, the mouse skull with a thickness of 150μm, and a ground glass diffuser. The solid curves are two-term Gaussian model fitting. The decorrelation radius is calculated as the HWFW of the measurement.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Focusing light though a moving diffuser. (a) The sample is under a reciprocating motion at a speed of 37.75 µm/s. (b) Three experiments were performed with dynamic modulation, single modulation and no modulation. The intensity changes for the first 1.5 seconds are shown as red, green and blue curves respectively. (c) The images captured from the CCD camera at 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 and 1.04 seconds are shown. These three situations are shown in the top, middle and bottom rows respectively. The corresponding phase is shown in the left corner of each image. Scale bars, 5μm. (Media 2)
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The image enhancement for the diffuser, mouse skull and brain tissue. The decorrelation time is set at 40ms, 80ms, 160ms and 240m, which is 0.5x, 1x, 2x and 3x of the system refresh time. The error bar represents the standard deviation over 190 samples during 15 seconds. (Media 3 for the mouse skull tissue, Media 4 for the mouse brain tissue)
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Measurement of decorrelation time for a drosophila embryo. (a) The NCC of the images captured during the first 18 seconds is calculated. The decorrelation time is 3.5 seconds. The images captured by the CCD camera at 0, 3.5 and 17 seconds are shown in (b), (c) and (d) respectively. Similar patterns are indicated by arrows. Scale bars, 5μm. (Media 5)
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Focusing light though a live drosophila embryo. (a) The enhancement for single and dynamic modulation during the first 15 seconds is shown as the red and blue curves respectively. The enlarged view during the first 4 seconds is shown in (b). The images from the CCD camera at 0.8, 1.28, 3.52 and 5.04 seconds is shown in (c) and (d) with dynamic and single modulations, respectively. The lower left corner of the images shows the corresponding mask on the DMD. Scale bars, 5µm. (Media 6)
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The complex plane for the optical field of EHn, ERef and ERHn.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E out =KE= n k n e in n
E B =A e 0
E out =K E B =KA e 0 .
E Ref =K A Ref e 0 ,where A Ref = [ 1 1 ] T .
E out =K A K e 0 .
a n ={ 1 Re( k n e 0 )0 0 Re( k n e 0 )<0
[ E H1 E HN ]=K[ H 1 H N ] e 0
Re(K e 0 )= 1 N [ Re( E H1 ) Re( E HN ) ] [ H 1 H N ] T
E BI = 1 2 ( A Ref + H n ) e 0
E RHn = E Hn + E Ref
Re( E Hn )=β( | E RHn | 2 | E Ref | 2 | E Hn | 2 | E Ref | 2 1 )
| E Ref | 2 | E Hn | 2
Re( E Hn )β( | E RHn | 2 / | E Ref | 2 1 ).
J=[ | E RH1 | 2 | E RHN | 2 ] [ H 1 H N ] T γRe(K e 0 ).
a n ={ 1 j n T 0 j n <T
M= N error / N total
P( I )= 1 I exp( I I )
P( I> I t )=exp( I t I )
P( I max > I t )=1 ( 1exp( I t I ) ) m .
Ε( I max / I )= 0 1 ( 1exp( I t I ) ) m d( I t I ) .
Re ( E Hn ) 2 +Im ( E Hn ) 2 = | E Hn | 2
( Re( E Hn )+| E Ref | ) 2 +Im ( E Hn ) 2 = | E RHn | 2
Re( E Hn )= 1 2| E Ref | ( | E RHn | 2 | E Ref | 2 | E Hn | 2 | E Ref | 2 1 )
Re( E Hn )=β( | E RHn | 2 | E Ref | 2 | E Hn | 2 | E Ref | 2 1 )

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