Abstract

Defects in graphene governs electrical and optical properties. Although grain boundaries in graphene inevitably formed during large area synthesis process, which act as scattering centers for charge carriers to degrade mobility, have been studied extensively, point defects have been rarely investigated mainly due to the absence of facile observation tools. Here, we report polarized optical microscopy to observe defect distributions in monolayer graphene. This was realized by aligning liquid crystal s (LC) on graphene where the defect population was modulated by irradiating ultraviolet (UV) light directly on graphene surface under moisture condition. Aromatic rings in LC molecules are oriented with hexagonal rings in graphene to have preferred orientation, providing a way to identify relative orientations of graphene domains and point defects. Our studies show that point defects generated by prolonged UV irradiation time give rise to irregular LC alignment with disclination lines on the graphene surface and a large-size LC domain associated with graphene single domain eventually disappeared. This indicates that defects associated with oxygen-containing functional groups cause to reduce the strong stacking interaction between graphene and LC molecules.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J.-H. Son, S.-J. Baeck, M.-H. Park, J.-B. Lee, C.-W. Yang, J.-K. Song, W. C. Zin, and J.-H. Ahn, “Detection of graphene domains and defects using liquid crystals,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. S. Yu, J. E. Yun, and J.-H. Kim, “Tilt angle change of nematic liquid crystal as a function of the number of graphite layers,” Liq. Cryst. 40(2), 216–220 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, W. J. Yu, L. Liu, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapour deposition growth of large single crystals of monolayer and bilayer graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2096 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gan and Z. Luo, “Turning off hydrogen to realize seeded growth of subcentimeter single-crystal graphene grains on copper,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9480–9488 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

Z. Yan, J. Lin, Z. Peng, Z. Sun, Y. Zhu, L. Li, C. Xiang, E. L. Samuel, C. Kittrell, and J. M. Tour, “Toward the synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene on copper foils,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9110–9117 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, W. Ren, H. Xu, L. Jin, Z. Wang, T. Ma, L.-P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Q. Fu, L. M. Peng, X. Bao, and H. M. Cheng, “Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum,” Nat. Commun. 3, 699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Yu, D.-H. Ha, and J.-H. Kim, “Mapping of the atomic lattice orientation of a graphite flake using macroscopic liquid crystal texture,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395704 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H. T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 29–34 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Avouris, “Graphene: Electronic and photonic properties and devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Du, J. M. Logan, J. Sippel, M. Nikolou, K. Kamaras, J. R. Reynolds, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and A. G. Rinzler, “Transparent, conductive carbon nanotube films,” Science 305(5688), 1273–1276 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature 382(6586), 54–56 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized gradient approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. A. Jishi, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, “Electron-phonon coupling and the electrical conductivity of fullerene nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B 48(15), 11385–11389 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Carbon fibers based on C60 and their symmetry,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(11), 6234–6242 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wen, J. Li, K. Kitazawa, T. Aida, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and K. Yamada, “Electrical conductivity of a pure C60 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2162–2163 (1992).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, “C60:Buckminsterfullerene,” Nature 318(6042), 162–163 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

J.-H. Son, S.-J. Baeck, M.-H. Park, J.-B. Lee, C.-W. Yang, J.-K. Song, W. C. Zin, and J.-H. Ahn, “Detection of graphene domains and defects using liquid crystals,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aida, T.

C. Wen, J. Li, K. Kitazawa, T. Aida, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and K. Yamada, “Electrical conductivity of a pure C60 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2162–2163 (1992).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, “Graphene: Electronic and photonic properties and devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, J. J.

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baeck, S.-J.

J.-H. Son, S.-J. Baeck, M.-H. Park, J.-B. Lee, C.-W. Yang, J.-K. Song, W. C. Zin, and J.-H. Ahn, “Detection of graphene domains and defects using liquid crystals,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3484 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, X.

L. Gao, W. Ren, H. Xu, L. Jin, Z. Wang, T. Ma, L.-P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Q. Fu, L. M. Peng, X. Bao, and H. M. Cheng, “Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum,” Nat. Commun. 3, 699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benayad, A.

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennett, J. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature 382(6586), 54–56 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bharathi, M. S.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brimicombe, P. D.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, K.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized gradient approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, S. H.

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, S. J.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

H. Zhou, W. J. Yu, L. Liu, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapour deposition growth of large single crystals of monolayer and bilayer graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2096 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Du, J. M. Logan, J. Sippel, M. Nikolou, K. Kamaras, J. R. Reynolds, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and A. G. Rinzler, “Transparent, conductive carbon nanotube films,” Science 305(5688), 1273–1276 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. M.

L. Gao, W. Ren, H. Xu, L. Jin, Z. Wang, T. Ma, L.-P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Q. Fu, L. M. Peng, X. Bao, and H. M. Cheng, “Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum,” Nat. Commun. 3, 699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, R.

H. Zhou, W. J. Yu, L. Liu, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapour deposition growth of large single crystals of monolayer and bilayer graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2096 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-Y.

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chou, H.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

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V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
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H. Zhou, W. J. Yu, L. Liu, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapour deposition growth of large single crystals of monolayer and bilayer graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2096 (2013).
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V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature 382(6586), 54–56 (1996).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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L. Gao, W. Ren, H. Xu, L. Jin, Z. Wang, T. Ma, L.-P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Q. Fu, L. M. Peng, X. Bao, and H. M. Cheng, “Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum,” Nat. Commun. 3, 699 (2012).
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P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
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A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature 382(6586), 54–56 (1996).
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Gleeson, H. F.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
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D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
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G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
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J.-S. Yu, D.-H. Ha, and J.-H. Kim, “Mapping of the atomic lattice orientation of a graphite flake using macroscopic liquid crystal texture,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395704 (2012).
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D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
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Hao, Y.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heath, J. R.

. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, “C60:Buckminsterfullerene,” Nature 318(6042), 162–163 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hebard, A. F.

Z. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Du, J. M. Logan, J. Sippel, M. Nikolou, K. Kamaras, J. R. Reynolds, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and A. G. Rinzler, “Transparent, conductive carbon nanotube films,” Science 305(5688), 1273–1276 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, E. W.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiura, H.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature 382(6586), 54–56 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honma, I.

C. Wen, J. Li, K. Kitazawa, T. Aida, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and K. Yamada, “Electrical conductivity of a pure C60 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2162–2163 (1992).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

H. Zhou, W. J. Yu, L. Liu, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapour deposition growth of large single crystals of monolayer and bilayer graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2096 (2013).
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Huang, Y.

H. Zhou, W. J. Yu, L. Liu, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapour deposition growth of large single crystals of monolayer and bilayer graphene,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2096 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, H. S.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H. T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 29–34 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, H. Y.

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, L.

L. Gao, W. Ren, H. Xu, L. Jin, Z. Wang, T. Ma, L.-P. Ma, Z. Zhang, Q. Fu, L. M. Peng, X. Bao, and H. M. Cheng, “Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum,” Nat. Commun. 3, 699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, M.

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jishi, R. A.

R. A. Jishi, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, “Electron-phonon coupling and the electrical conductivity of fullerene nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B 48(15), 11385–11389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jo, Y. W.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, H. T.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H. T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 29–34 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamaras, K.

Z. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Du, J. M. Logan, J. Sippel, M. Nikolou, K. Kamaras, J. R. Reynolds, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and A. G. Rinzler, “Transparent, conductive carbon nanotube films,” Science 305(5688), 1273–1276 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H. T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 29–34 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E. S.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

J. S. Yu, J. E. Yun, and J.-H. Kim, “Tilt angle change of nematic liquid crystal as a function of the number of graphite layers,” Liq. Cryst. 40(2), 216–220 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Yu, D.-H. Ha, and J.-H. Kim, “Mapping of the atomic lattice orientation of a graphite flake using macroscopic liquid crystal texture,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395704 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

Y. Hao, M. S. Bharathi, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, S. Nie, X. Wang, H. Chou, C. Tan, B. Fallahazad, H. Ramanarayan, C. W. Magnuson, E. Tutuc, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, Y.-W. Zhang, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “The role of surface oxygen in the growth of large single-crystal graphene on copper,” Science 342(6159), 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. T.

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

D. W. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, and H. T. Jung, “Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 29–34 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitazawa, K.

C. Wen, J. Li, K. Kitazawa, T. Aida, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and K. Yamada, “Electrical conductivity of a pure C60 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2162–2163 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kittrell, C.

Z. Yan, J. Lin, Z. Peng, Z. Sun, Y. Zhu, L. Li, C. Xiang, E. L. Samuel, C. Kittrell, and J. M. Tour, “Toward the synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene on copper foils,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9110–9117 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komiyama, H.

C. Wen, J. Li, K. Kitazawa, T. Aida, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and K. Yamada, “Electrical conductivity of a pure C60 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2162–2163 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kroto, . W.

. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, “C60:Buckminsterfullerene,” Nature 318(6042), 162–163 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-B.

J.-H. Son, S.-J. Baeck, M.-H. Park, J.-B. Lee, C.-W. Yang, J.-K. Song, W. C. Zin, and J.-H. Ahn, “Detection of graphene domains and defects using liquid crystals,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3484 (2014).
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Lee, S. H.

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

V. L. Nguyen, B. G. Shin, D. L. Duong, S. T. Kim, D. Perello, Y. J. Lim, Q. H. Yuan, F. Ding, H. Y. Jeong, H. S. Shin, S. M. Lee, S. H. Chae, Q. A. Vu, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Seamless stitching of graphene domains on polished copper (111) foil,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1376–1382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Han, F. Güneş, J. J. Bae, E. S. Kim, S. J. Chae, H.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Choi, D. Pribat, and Y. H. Lee, “Influence of copper morphology in forming nucleation seeds for graphene growth,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4144–4148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Güneş, G. H. Han, H.-J. Shin, S. Y. Lee, M. Jin, D. L. Duong, S. J. Chae, E. S. Kim, F. Yao, A. Benayad, J.-Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “UV-light-assisted oxidative sp3 hybridization of graphene,” Nano 6(5), 409–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature 382(6586), 54–56 (1996).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

C. Wen, J. Li, K. Kitazawa, T. Aida, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and K. Yamada, “Electrical conductivity of a pure C60 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2162–2163 (1992).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Z. Yan, J. Lin, Z. Peng, Z. Sun, Y. Zhu, L. Li, C. Xiang, E. L. Samuel, C. Kittrell, and J. M. Tour, “Toward the synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene on copper foils,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9110–9117 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S. C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of typical defects of single crystalline graphene on glass substrate: (a) commensurate and (b) incommensurate stitching of two hexagonal graphene grains, and (c) single hexagonal graphene grain. Point defects (for example SW defect) are visualized in each grain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic diagram of graphene surface on glass according to the UV irradiation treatment under ambient conditions: (a) GGB area and (b) point defect area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

POM images of the LC domains induced by graphene surface according to UV treatment time under crossed polarizers: (a) Area 1, (b) Area 2 and (c) Area 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Density functional theory calculations of the LC alignment on graphene surface. The binding energy is calculated by subtracting the total energies of individual LC and graphene from that of combined LC and graphene system. Although two aromatic rings in free-standing molecule are twisted, they are adsorbed closely parallel to the graphene layer, as shown in the inset, while the tail part is repelled due to hydrophobic nature between graphene and tail of the molecule.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Defect percentage and (b) defect change ratio in graphene domains along the UV irradiation treatment under ambient conditions.

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