Abstract

This paper developed a new retrieval framework of external mixing of the dust and non-dust aerosol to predict the lidar ratio of the external mixing aerosols and to separate the contributions of non-spherical aerosols by using different depolarization ratios among dust, sea salt, smoke, and polluted aerosols. The detailed sensitivity tests and case study with the new method showed that reliable dust information could be retrieved even without prior information about the non-dust aerosol types. This new method is suitable for global dust retrievals with satellite observations, which is critical for better understanding global dust transportation and for model improvements.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Luo, R. Yuan, and Z. Wang, “On factors controlling marine boundary layer aerosol optical depth,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(6), 3321–3334 (2014).

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. T. Evan, C. Flamant, S. Fiedler, and O. Doherty, “An analysis of aerolian dust in climate models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(16), 5996–6001 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

2013 (3)

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and O. Dubovik, “Vertical profiles of pure dust and mixed smoke-dust plumes inferred from inversion of multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidar data and comparison to AERONET retrievals and in situ observations,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3178–3202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Zhou, “The three-dimensional structure of transatlantic African dust transport: a new perspective from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Adv. Meteorol. 2012, 850704 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, Z. Wang, A. Heymsfield, J. Fan, D. Liu, and M. Zhao, “Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(18), L18805 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus 63(4), 619–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Giannakaki, D. Balis, and V. Amiridis, “Vertical resolved separation of aerosol types using CALIPSO Level-2 Product,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820T (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 254–267 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D13), D13202 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Ali, “Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1994–2014 (2009).

2008 (7)

B. T. Johnson, B. Heese, S. A. McFarlane, P. Chazette, A. Jones, and N. Bellouin, “Vertical distribution and radiative effects of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C12 (2008).

G. Myhre, C. R. Hoyle, T. F. Berglen, B. T. Johnson, and J. M. Haywood, “Modeling of the solar radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-Burning Experiment (DABEX),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C16 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 346–358 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tesche and A. Ausmann, “D. Mu ̈ller, D. Althausen, I. Mattisand co-authors, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman Lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144–164 (2008).

2007 (1)

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D6), D06212 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Winker, “Accounting for multiple scattering in retrievals from space lidar,” Proc. SPIE 5059, 128–139 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

areP. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanre, A. da Silva, S. Schubert, and J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature 395(6700), 367–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

J. Overpeck, D. Rind, A. Lacis, and R. Healy, “Possible role of dust induced regional warming in abrupt climate change during the last glacial period,” Nature 384(6608), 447–449 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. Tegen, A. A. Lacis, and I. Fung, “The influence on climate forcing of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils,” Nature 380(6573), 419–422 (1996).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Ali, H.

H. Ali, “Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1994–2014 (2009).

Alpert, P.

areP. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanre, A. da Silva, S. Schubert, and J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature 395(6700), 367–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

Althausen, D.

U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D13), D13202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Amiridis, V.

V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Giannakaki, D. Balis, and V. Amiridis, “Vertical resolved separation of aerosol types using CALIPSO Level-2 Product,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820T (2011).
[Crossref]

Ansmann, A.

V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and O. Dubovik, “Vertical profiles of pure dust and mixed smoke-dust plumes inferred from inversion of multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidar data and comparison to AERONET retrievals and in situ observations,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3178–3202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D13), D13202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aoki, K.

T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D6), D06212 (2007).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
[Crossref]

Apituley, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arao, K.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ausmann, A.

M. Tesche and A. Ausmann, “D. Mu ̈ller, D. Althausen, I. Mattisand co-authors, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman Lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144–164 (2008).

Ayers, J. K.

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baldasano, J.

V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balis, D.

E. Giannakaki, D. Balis, and V. Amiridis, “Vertical resolved separation of aerosol types using CALIPSO Level-2 Product,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820T (2011).
[Crossref]

Balkanski, Y.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Basart, S.

V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, S. E.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Behrendt, A.

J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bellouin, N.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

B. T. Johnson, B. Heese, S. A. McFarlane, P. Chazette, A. Jones, and N. Bellouin, “Vertical distribution and radiative effects of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C12 (2008).

Berglen, T. F.

G. Myhre, C. R. Hoyle, T. F. Berglen, B. T. Johnson, and J. M. Haywood, “Modeling of the solar radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-Burning Experiment (DABEX),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C16 (2008).
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S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, T.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boucher, O.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burton, S. P.

S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaboureau, J.-P.

J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chazette, P.

B. T. Johnson, B. Heese, S. A. McFarlane, P. Chazette, A. Jones, and N. Bellouin, “Vertical distribution and radiative effects of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C12 (2008).

Chédin, A.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

Chepfer, H.

J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin, M.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chiriaco, M.

J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collins, W.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Comstock, J. M.

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cook, A. L.

da Silva, A.

areP. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanre, A. da Silva, S. Schubert, and J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature 395(6700), 367–370 (1998).
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DeMott, P. J.

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dentener, F.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
[Crossref]

Di Girolamo, P.

J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
[Crossref]

Diehl, T.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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Doherty, O.

A. T. Evan, C. Flamant, S. Fiedler, and O. Doherty, “An analysis of aerolian dust in climate models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(16), 5996–6001 (2014).
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Dubovik, O.

Easter, R.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus 63(4), 619–634 (2011).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 346–358 (2008).
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Engelmann, R.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D13), D13202 (2009).
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Esselborn, M.

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
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A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus 63(4), 619–634 (2011).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 346–358 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evan, A. T.

A. T. Evan, C. Flamant, S. Fiedler, and O. Doherty, “An analysis of aerolian dust in climate models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(16), 5996–6001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

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T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 254–267 (2011).
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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D6), D06212 (2007).
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Okamoto, H.

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 254–267 (2011).
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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D6), D06212 (2007).
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Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
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J. Overpeck, D. Rind, A. Lacis, and R. Healy, “Possible role of dust induced regional warming in abrupt climate change during the last glacial period,” Nature 384(6608), 447–449 (1996).
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S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus 63(4), 619–634 (2011).
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J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
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S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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Powell, K.

Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
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D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

Prather, K. A.

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
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S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
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J. Overpeck, D. Rind, A. Lacis, and R. Healy, “Possible role of dust induced regional warming in abrupt climate change during the last glacial period,” Nature 384(6608), 447–449 (1996).
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J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
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Schmidt, J.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Schnell, F.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Schubert, S.

areP. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanre, A. da Silva, S. Schubert, and J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature 395(6700), 367–370 (1998).
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Schulz, M.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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Seefeldner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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Seifert, P.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
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Seland, O.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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Serikov, I.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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areP. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanre, A. da Silva, S. Schubert, and J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature 395(6700), 367–370 (1998).
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Shimizu, A.

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 254–267 (2011).
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I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D6), D06212 (2007).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
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Singh, B.

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
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Stier, P.

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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Sugimoto, N.

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 254–267 (2011).
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I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
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Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
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T. Nishizawa, H. Okamoto, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and K. Aoki, “An algorithm that retrieves aerosol properties from dual wavelength polarized lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D6), D06212 (2007).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
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Sun, W.

Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
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D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
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S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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Tan, Q.

D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

Tanre, D.

areP. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanre, A. da Silva, S. Schubert, and J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature 395(6700), 367–370 (1998).
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D. Müller, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and O. Dubovik, “Vertical profiles of pure dust and mixed smoke-dust plumes inferred from inversion of multiwavelength Raman/polarization lidar data and comparison to AERONET retrievals and in situ observations,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3178–3202 (2013).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde using multiwavelength raman and polarization lidars during Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D13), D13202 (2009).
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M. Tesche and A. Ausmann, “D. Mu ̈ller, D. Althausen, I. Mattisand co-authors, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman Lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus 61B, 144–164 (2008).

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 346–358 (2008).
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S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
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Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
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Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
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D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
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D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
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I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
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Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
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Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
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S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
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Wandinger, U.

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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
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Wang, Y.

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
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D. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Zhou, “The three-dimensional structure of transatlantic African dust transport: a new perspective from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Adv. Meteorol. 2012, 850704 (2012).
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Wang, Z.

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
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T. Luo, R. Yuan, and Z. Wang, “On factors controlling marine boundary layer aerosol optical depth,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(6), 3321–3334 (2014).

D. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Zhou, “The three-dimensional structure of transatlantic African dust transport: a new perspective from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Adv. Meteorol. 2012, 850704 (2012).
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D. Zhang, Z. Wang, A. Heymsfield, J. Fan, D. Liu, and M. Zhao, “Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(18), L18805 (2012).
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I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
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S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
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A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus 63(4), 619–634 (2011).
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White, A.

J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
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Wiegner, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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D. Winker, “Accounting for multiple scattering in retrievals from space lidar,” Proc. SPIE 5059, 128–139 (2003).
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Wirth, M.

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 47(3), 346–358 (2008).
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J.-P. Chaboureau, E. Richard, J.-P. Pinty, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, A. Behrendt, H. Chepfer, M. Chiriaco, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Long-range transport of saharan dust and its radiative impact on precipitation forecast: a case study during the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study (COPS),” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1), 236–251 (2011).
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A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S17 (2004).
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D. Kim, M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R. A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S. E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chédin, and B. Koffi, “Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of north African dust aerosol: a multimodel analysis and comparison with remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 119, 6259–6277 (2014).

Yuan, R.

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
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T. Luo, R. Yuan, and Z. Wang, “On factors controlling marine boundary layer aerosol optical depth,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(6), 3321–3334 (2014).

Yumimoto, K.

I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
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D. Zhang, Z. Wang, A. Heymsfield, J. Fan, D. Liu, and M. Zhao, “Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(18), L18805 (2012).
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D. Zhang, Z. Wang, A. Heymsfield, J. Fan, D. Liu, and M. Zhao, “Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(18), L18805 (2012).
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Zhou, J.

D. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Zhou, “The three-dimensional structure of transatlantic African dust transport: a new perspective from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Adv. Meteorol. 2012, 850704 (2012).
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Adv. Meteorol. (1)

D. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Zhou, “The three-dimensional structure of transatlantic African dust transport: a new perspective from CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Adv. Meteorol. 2012, 850704 (2012).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (5)

Z. Liu, D. Liu, J. Huang, M. Vaughan, I. Uno, N. Sugimoto, C. Kittaka, C. Trepte, Z. Wang, C. Hostetler, and D. Winker, “Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(16), 5045–5060 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann, “Optimizing CALIPSO Saharan dust retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(23), 12089–12106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kinne, M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, “An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(7), 1815–1834 (2006).
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J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min, “Aerosol impacts on california winter clouds and precipitation during calwater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 81–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Wandinger, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, and D. Althausen, “Size matters: influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(10), L10801 (2010).
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D. Zhang, Z. Wang, A. Heymsfield, J. Fan, D. Liu, and M. Zhao, “Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(18), L18805 (2012).
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H. Ali, “Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1994–2014 (2009).

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G. Myhre, C. R. Hoyle, T. F. Berglen, B. T. Johnson, and J. M. Haywood, “Modeling of the solar radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-Burning Experiment (DABEX),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C16 (2008).
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D. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Winker, and C. Trepte, “A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D16), D16214 (2008).
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T. Luo, R. Yuan, and Z. Wang, “On factors controlling marine boundary layer aerosol optical depth,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(6), 3321–3334 (2014).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, and H. Okamoto, “Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 254–267 (2011).
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Z. Liu, D. Winker, A. Omar, M. Vaughan, C. Trepte, Y. Hu, K. Powell, W. Sun, and B. Lin, “Effective lidar ratios of dense dust layers over North Africa derived from the CALIOP measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(2), 204–213 (2011).
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Nat. Geosci. (1)

I. Uno, K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto, “Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe,” Nat. Geosci. 2(8), 557–560 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The normalized backscattering coefficients of dust and non-dust aerosol used for the sensitive experiments. Those profiles are used to simulate the mixing of an evaluated dust layer with a boundary layer non-dust aerosol.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results for the SS experiments (a1-b3) and SM experiments (c1-d3). The first panel (a1-a3) shows SS experiment of the weak dust mixing case. The second panel (b1-b3) shows the SS experiment of moderated dust mixing case. The third panel (c1-c3) shows SM experiment of the weak dust mixing case. The forth panel (d1-d3) shows the SS experiment of moderated dust mixing case. The true value is the same as SS-SS or SM-SM (the red lines).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The layer mean of the absolute relative errors in βd from full sensitive tests with retrieval parameters of δd_ret = 0.25, δnd_ret = 0.04, and others as in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A dust mixed with sea salt case observed by CALIPSO and under-fly HSRL on 2010/08/24/. (a1-a6) are from HSRL measurements or derived properties: (a1-a3) are the measured β Total ' , δp, and aerosol backscattering coefficients βaero; (a4) is retrieved βa with the new two component method; (a5) and (a6) are βdust and βseaosalt resolved from βaero with measured δp and Eq. (7). (b1-b5) are CALIPSO measured or derived properties: (b1) measured β Total ' ; and (b2 – b5) are retrieved δp, βa, βd and βnd with the new two component method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The δ p ' S relationship from HSRL measurements overlaid with the measured mean δ p ' S relationship (the red dot-line) and the predicted Seff by Eq. (8) (black dash line); (b) the mean profiles from HSRL and CALIPSO measurements and retrieval; (c) comparison between CALIPSO retrieved βd and HSRL derived βdust; (d) comparison between CALIPSO and HSRL measured β Total ' .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The input (upper panel) and retrieval (lower panel) parameters used in the simulation experiments. The sea salt S is from [39]. Other parameters are based on [12] and used in the CALIPSO level 2 products.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summaries of the layer mean of the absolute relative errors in βd for the selected (upper panel).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summaries of the layer mean of the absolute relative errors in βd for full (lower panel) experiments. The errors in βd for full tests are averaged for each experiment with assigned δd_ret and δnd_ret (i. e. over each plot in Fig. 3).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Summaries of errors of βd in CALIPSO sensitivity tests.

Equations (10)

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β Total ' ( z )= β ' ( z )+ β ' ( z )=( β a ( z )+ β m ( z ) ) e 2 0 z ( S a β a ( z' )+ S m β m ( z' ) ) dz'
β Total ' ( z )=( β d ( z )+ β nd ( z )+ β m ( z ) ) e 2 0 z ( S d β d ( z' )+ S nd β nd ( z' )+ S m β m ( z' ) ) dz'
δ p ' ( z )= β a, ( z ) β a, ( z )+ β a, ( z ) = δ p ( z ) δ p ( z )+1 = δ d ' ( z ) β d ( z )+ δ nd ' ( z ) β nd ( z ) β d ( z )+ β nd ( z )
β nd ( z )=c β d ( z )
c( z )= δ p ' ( z ) δ d ' ( z ) δ nd ' ( z ) δ d ' ( z )
β Total ' =( β a ( z )+ β m ( z ) ) e 2 0 z ( S eff β a ( z ' )+ S m β m ( z ' ) ) d z '
β a ( z )=( 1+c( z ) ) β d ( z )
S eff ( z )= S d +c( z ) S nd 1+c( z )
δ p ( z )= β ( z ) δ m β m e 2 0 z ( S β a ( z ' )+ S m β m ( z ' ) ) d z ' β ( z ) β m e 2 0 z ( S β a ( z ' )+ S m β m ( z ' ) ) d z '
β Total ' =( β d ( z )+ β nd ( z )+ β m ( z ) ) e 2 0 z ( S d β d ( z ' )+ S nd_ini β nd ( z ' )+ S m β m ( z ' ) ) d z ' β ' =( δ d ' β d ( z )+ δ nd ' β nd ( z )+ δ m ' ( z ) ) e 2 0 z ( S d β d ( z ' )+ S nd_ini β nd ( z ' )+ S m β m ( z ' ) ) d z '

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