Abstract

We fabricated square diffractive microlens array with five staircases in the THz wave band for Nb5N6 microbolometers. With each microlens intergrated with an Nb5N6 microbolometer on the same substrate, an array chip was fabricated in the 4 inches silicon wafer. The lens exhibits good focusing and improves the coupling efficiency. The voltage response of the microbolometer integrated with diffractive microlens is 16 times higher than that of the microbolometer fabricated on silicon substrate. The microbolometers used as room-temperature detectors yield a good responsivity of 71 V/W and a noise equivalent power of 1.0 × 10−10 W/Hz. The diffractive microlens array features light weight, low absorption loss, and high resolution and can be mass produced using standard micro-fabrication techniques.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Nb5N6 microbolometer for sensitive, fast-response, 2-µm detection

Xuecou Tu, Peng Xiao, Lin Kang, Chengtao Jiang, Xinle Guo, Zhou Jiang, Runfeng Su, Xiaoqing Jia, Jian Chen, and Peiheng Wu
Opt. Express 26(12) 15585-15593 (2018)

Investigation of antenna-coupled Nb5N6 microbolometer THz detector with substrate resonant cavity

Xuecou Tu, Chengtao Jiang, Peng Xiao, Lin Kang, Shimin Zhai, Zhou Jiang, Run Feng Su, Xiaoqing Jia, Labao Zhang, Jian Chen, and Peiheng Wu
Opt. Express 26(7) 8990-8997 (2018)

Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors

Franz Schuster, Dominique Coquillat, Hadley Videlier, Maciej Sakowicz, Frédéric Teppe, Laurent Dussopt, Benoît Giffard, Thomas Skotnicki, and Wojciech Knap
Opt. Express 19(8) 7827-7832 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. L. Hesler and T. W. Crowe, “NEP and responsivity of THz zero-bias Schottky diode detectors,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves,2007and the 2007 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics. IRMMW-THz. Joint 32nd International Conference on. pp. 844–845.
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Hou, H. Park, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 177–182 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Oden, J. Meilhan, J. Lalanne-Dera, J. F. Roux, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, and F. Simoens, “Imaging of broadband terahertz beams using an array of antenna-coupled microbolometers operating at room temperature,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4817–4825 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. P. Han, H. Ko, J. W. Park, N. Kim, Y. J. Yoon, J. H. Shin, D. Y. Kim, D. H. Lee, and K. H. Park, “InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25874–25882 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, H. Videlier, M. Sakowicz, F. Teppe, L. Dussopt, B. Giffard, T. Skotnicki, and W. Knap, “Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7827–7832 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. S. Gearhart and G. M. Rebeiz, “A monolithic 250 GHz Schottky-diode receiver,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42(12), 2504–2511 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Wang, T. Yuan, E. D. Walsby, R. J. Blaikie, S. M. Durbin, D. R. Cumming, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Characterization of T-ray binary lenses,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1183–1185 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).
  23. Z. Zhang and W. Dou, “Binary diffractive small lens array for THz imaging system,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25(2-3), 177–187 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. B. Rutledge, D. P. Neikirk, and D. P. Kasilingam, “Integrated Circuit Antennas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves Series, I0, K.J.Button, ed., Academic Press, New York, 1983.
  25. D. Kasilingam and D. Rutledge, “Focusing properties of small lenses,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 7(10), 1631–1647 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Dou, “Analysis of frequency dependence and focusing performance of diffractive lens,” Opt. Express 10(19), 1018–1027 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 1–24 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  28. http://vadiodes.com/ .

2013 (6)

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Oden, J. Meilhan, J. Lalanne-Dera, J. F. Roux, F. Garet, J. L. Coutaz, and F. Simoens, “Imaging of broadband terahertz beams using an array of antenna-coupled microbolometers operating at room temperature,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4817–4825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Han, H. Ko, J. W. Park, N. Kim, Y. J. Yoon, J. H. Shin, D. Y. Kim, D. H. Lee, and K. H. Park, “InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25874–25882 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, H. Park, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 177–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang and W. Dou, “Binary diffractive small lens array for THz imaging system,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25(2-3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, H. Videlier, M. Sakowicz, F. Teppe, L. Dussopt, B. Giffard, T. Skotnicki, and W. Knap, “Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7827–7832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

1994 (2)

P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 1–24 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gearhart and G. M. Rebeiz, “A monolithic 250 GHz Schottky-diode receiver,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42(12), 2504–2511 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

D. Kasilingam and D. Rutledge, “Focusing properties of small lenses,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 7(10), 1631–1647 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abramovich, A.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Afshari, E.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akram, A.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Armand, D.

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belenky, A.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaikie, R. J.

Boppel, S.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coquillat, D.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, H. Videlier, M. Sakowicz, F. Teppe, L. Dussopt, B. Giffard, T. Skotnicki, and W. Knap, “Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7827–7832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coutaz, J. L.

Cumming, D.

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

Cumming, D. R.

Dou, W.

Z. Zhang and W. Dou, “Binary diffractive small lens array for THz imaging system,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25(2-3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Dou, “Analysis of frequency dependence and focusing performance of diffractive lens,” Opt. Express 10(19), 1018–1027 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durbin, S. M.

Dussopt, L.

Ercolani, D.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ermolaev, D. M.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garet, F.

Gavrilenko, V. I.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gearhart, S. S.

S. S. Gearhart and G. M. Rebeiz, “A monolithic 250 GHz Schottky-diode receiver,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42(12), 2504–2511 (1994).
[Crossref]

Giffard, B.

Glaab, D.

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Golenkov, A.

F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grant, J.

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

Han, R.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, S. P.

Hou, L.

L. Hou, H. Park, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 177–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S.

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Joseph, H.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kadoya, Y.

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, L.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kasalynas, I.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kasilingam, D.

D. Kasilingam and D. Rutledge, “Focusing properties of small lenses,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 7(10), 1631–1647 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kenneth, K. O.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. Han, H. Ko, J. W. Park, N. Kim, Y. J. Yoon, J. H. Shin, D. Y. Kim, D. H. Lee, and K. H. Park, “InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25874–25882 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knap, W.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, H. Videlier, M. Sakowicz, F. Teppe, L. Dussopt, B. Giffard, T. Skotnicki, and W. Knap, “Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7827–7832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, H.

Kohler, K.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kopeika, N. S.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lalanne-Dera, J.

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. H.

Levanon, A.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

Lisauskas, A.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lombardo, A.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

Maleev, N. A.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mao, Q.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maremyanin, K. V.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meilhan, J.

Minkevicius, L.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Muha, M. S.

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Neikirk, D. P.

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Oden, J.

Oh, C.

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ojefors, E.

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

L. Hou, H. Park, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 177–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Park, J. W.

Park, K.

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

Pellegrini, V.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, U.

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pitanti, A.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polini, M.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, V. V.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rebeiz, G. M.

S. S. Gearhart and G. M. Rebeiz, “A monolithic 250 GHz Schottky-diode receiver,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42(12), 2504–2511 (1994).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reva, V.

F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Richards, P. L.

P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 1–24 (1994).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roux, J. F.

Rozban, D.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rutledge, D.

D. Kasilingam and D. Rutledge, “Focusing properties of small lenses,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 7(10), 1631–1647 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rutledge, D. B.

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Saha, S.

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

Sakowicz, M.

Schuster, F.

Seliuta, D.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shapoval, S. Y.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shichijo, H.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shin, J. H.

Simoens, F.

Sizov, F.

F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skotnicki, T.

Sorba, L.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamosiunas, V.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, H.

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teppe, F.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, H. Videlier, M. Sakowicz, F. Teppe, L. Dussopt, B. Giffard, T. Skotnicki, and W. Knap, “Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7827–7832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Valusis, G.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vicarelli, L.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Videlier, H.

Viti, L.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsby, E. D.

Wan, C.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, W.

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yadid-Pecht, O.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yitzhaky, Y.

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y. J.

Yu, C. X.

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

Zabudsky, V.

F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zemlyakov, V. E.

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

L. Hou, H. Park, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 177–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. C.

Zhang, Y.

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and W. Dou, “Binary diffractive small lens array for THz imaging system,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25(2-3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Glaab, S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz heterodyne detection with silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 042106 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamosiunas, I. Kasalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131101 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153504 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. P. Neikirk, D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, H. Park, and C. X. Yu, “Far-infrared imaging antenna- arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 203–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. Armand, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kadoya, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz full horn-antenna characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chinese Phys. B (1)

X. Tu, L. Kang, X. Liu, Q. Mao, C. Wan, J. Chen, B. Jin, Z. Ji, W. Xu, and P. Wu, “Nb5N6 microbolometer array for terahertz detection,” Chinese Phys. B 22(4), 040701 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Hou, H. Park, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging system based on glow discharge detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 177–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

R. Han, Y. Zhang, Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Shichijo, E. Afshari, and K. O. Kenneth, “Active terahertz imaging using Schottky diodes in CMOS array and 860-GHz pixel,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(10), 2296–2308 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. Rozban, A. Levanon, H. Joseph, A. Akram, A. Abramovich, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Yitzhaky, A. Belenky, and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Inexpensive THz focal plane array imaging using miniature neon indicator lamps as detectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(9), 1962–1968 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

S. S. Gearhart and G. M. Rebeiz, “A monolithic 250 GHz Schottky-diode receiver,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42(12), 2504–2511 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Saha, C. Li, Y. Ma, J. Grant, and D. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lens at terahertz frequency,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(4), 479–485 (2013).

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

D. Kasilingam and D. Rutledge, “Focusing properties of small lenses,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 7(10), 1631–1647 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 1–24 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

Z. Zhang and W. Dou, “Binary diffractive small lens array for THz imaging system,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25(2-3), 177–187 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves (2)

G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Park, and C. Oh, “Enhanced continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a horn antenna for food inspection,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(6), 657–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Sizov, V. Reva, A. Golenkov, and V. Zabudsky, “Uncooled detectors challenges for THz/sub-THz arrays imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1192–1206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater. 11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

http://vadiodes.com/ .

J. L. Hesler and T. W. Crowe, “NEP and responsivity of THz zero-bias Schottky diode detectors,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves,2007and the 2007 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics. IRMMW-THz. Joint 32nd International Conference on. pp. 844–845.
[Crossref]

D. B. Rutledge, D. P. Neikirk, and D. P. Kasilingam, “Integrated Circuit Antennas,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves Series, I0, K.J.Button, ed., Academic Press, New York, 1983.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of diffractive lens with multilevel staircases.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated focusing characteristics at 0.22 THz. (a) E field distribution in the x-y plane. (b) The red dashed line shows the E field on the focal region of the lens (on the x = 0 plane) along the y-direction as indicated in (a). The blue dashed line shows the E field on the plane of the silicon substrate (on the x = 0 plane).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frequency dependence and focusing performance of the microlens. (a) E field in the focal region of the silicon lens under different frequencies. (b) The red dashed line shows the E field extracted from (a) at y = 0 under different frequencies. The blue dashed line shows the E field at y = 0 on the silicon substrate plane under different frequencies. (c) shows the square of the E field enhancement at x = 0 and y = 0 extracted from (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Wafer (4 inches) with diffractive microlens array. (b) Optical microscope picture of fabricated five-staircase square silicon microlens array chip. (c) SEM micrograph of an Nb5N6 microbolometer fabricated at the back center of the microlens. The micrograph is acquired by tilting the sample at an angle of 60° with respect to the horizontal plane.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The SE - Ib curves of the Nb5N6 microbolometer. The best electrical responsivity is 560 V/W at Ib = 0.24 mA. The inset shows the measured TCR of the Nb5N6 microbolometer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic of the experimental setup for optical responsivity measurements.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Red dashed line shows the measured response of the Nb5N6 microbolometer integrated with the five-step diffractive microlens. The blue line shows the calculated value of E2x = 0, y = 0 on the microlens. (b) The red dashed line shows the measured optical responsivity of the Nb5N6 microbolometer fabricated on the silicon substrate. The blue line shows the calculated value of E2x = 0, y = 0 on the substrate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Enhancement of the optical response of Nb5N6 microbolometer integrated with the microlens compared with of the microbolometer fabricated on the substrate

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| H O 1 |= n 2 | H O 2 |±k λ 0
n 2 [ f(m1)h ] 2 + r m 2 = [ f 0 (m1)h ] 2 + r m 2

Metrics