Abstract

We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM signals under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical transmission and OFDM signaling are important.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–371 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. China Mobile Research Institute, “C-RAN: The road towards green RAN,” whitepaper v. 2.6, Sep. 2013.
  5. Y. Okumura and J. Terada, “Optical network technologies and architectures for backhaul/fronthaul of future radio access supporting big mobile data,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2014), tutorial paper Tu3F.1 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Pizzinat, P. Chanclou, T. Diallo, and F. Saliou, “Things you should know about fronthaul,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2014), invited paper Tu.4.2.1 (2014).
  7. CPRI Specification V6.0, “Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI); Interface Specification,” Aug. 2013.
  8. X. Liu, F. Effenberger, N. Chand, L. Zhou, and H. Lin, “Efficient mobile fronthaul transmission of multiple LTE-A signals with 36.86-Gb/s CPRI-equivalent data rate using a directly-modulated laser and fiber dispersion mitigation,” Proc. ACP 2014, post-deadline paper AF4B.5 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Liu, F. Effenberger, N. Chand, L. Zhou, and H. Lin, “Demonstration of bandwidth-efficient mobile fronthaul enabling seamless aggregation of 36 E-UTRA-like wireless signals in a single 1.1-GHz wavelength channel,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2015), paper M2J.2 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. C.-C. Wei, “Small-signal analysis of OOFDM signal transmission with DML and direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 151–153 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Nesset, “NG-PON2 technology and standards,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2014), tutorial paper Mo.4.1.1 (2014).

2014 (1)

N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andre, N. S.

N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Habel, K.

N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Louchet, H.

N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lowery, A. J.

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Richter, A.

N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. J. C.

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.-C.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. S. Andŕe, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and A. Richter, “Analytical formulation for SNR prediction in IMDD OFDM-based access systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1255–1258 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

D. Nesset, “NG-PON2 technology and standards,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2014), tutorial paper Mo.4.1.1 (2014).

China Mobile Research Institute, “C-RAN: The road towards green RAN,” whitepaper v. 2.6, Sep. 2013.

Y. Okumura and J. Terada, “Optical network technologies and architectures for backhaul/fronthaul of future radio access supporting big mobile data,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2014), tutorial paper Tu3F.1 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Pizzinat, P. Chanclou, T. Diallo, and F. Saliou, “Things you should know about fronthaul,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2014), invited paper Tu.4.2.1 (2014).

CPRI Specification V6.0, “Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI); Interface Specification,” Aug. 2013.

X. Liu, F. Effenberger, N. Chand, L. Zhou, and H. Lin, “Efficient mobile fronthaul transmission of multiple LTE-A signals with 36.86-Gb/s CPRI-equivalent data rate using a directly-modulated laser and fiber dispersion mitigation,” Proc. ACP 2014, post-deadline paper AF4B.5 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, F. Effenberger, N. Chand, L. Zhou, and H. Lin, “Demonstration of bandwidth-efficient mobile fronthaul enabling seamless aggregation of 36 E-UTRA-like wireless signals in a single 1.1-GHz wavelength channel,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC) (2015), paper M2J.2 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Examples of the transfer functions considered in this paper, YDC, YAC, and YSC, where XM = 3, as well as the Probability Density Function (PDF) of a Gaussian distributed signal (μ = 0, σ = 1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The probability density functions of the three transformed signals. Note that all signals have different magnitude delta functions at zero capturing probability of clipping the signal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Linear gains, power averages, and power-efficiency gains (benefits) of various OFDM formats. DCO: DC-offset OFDM; AC: asymmetrically-clipped OFDM [13]; SC: soft-clipped OFDM proposed here.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the bandwidth-efficient mobile fronthaul architecture with DSP-based channel aggregation and de-aggregation as reported in [8, 9]. Inset: measured optical spectra of the aggregated signals under the odd-channel-only mapping. BBU: baseband unit; RRU: remote radio unit; DAC: digital-to-analog converter; ADC: analog-to-digital converter; TX: optical transmitter; RX: optical receiver; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulated optical spectrum of 24 20-MHz LTE signals (and their images due to Hermitian symmetry) that are aggregated using the odd-channel-only mapping under the DCO bias condition in the back-to-back configuration; (b) Recovered constellation of the highest-frequency (24th) signal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated optical spectrum of 24 20-MHz LTE signals (and their images due to Hermitian symmetry) that are aggregated using the odd-channel-only mapping under the AC bias condition in the back-to-back configuration; (b) Recovered constellation of the highest-frequency (24th) signal.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Simulated optical spectrum of 24 20-MHz LTE signals (and their images due to Hermitian symmetry) that are aggregated using the odd-channel-only mapping under the proposed SC bias condition in the back-to-back configuration; (b) Recovered constellation of the highest-frequency (24th) signal.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental setup for evaluating the performance of the proposed soft-clipping technique.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Experimentally measured spectrum of the aggregated signals after 20-km SSMF transmission with a received power of −22 dBm and (b) Measured EVM as a function of received power, all under the DCO condition.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Experimentally measured spectrum of the aggregated signals after 20-km SSMF transmission with a received power of −22 dBm and (b) Measured EVM as a function of receiver power, all under the proposed SC condition.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Y DC = X + X M
Y AC = { 2X when X>0 0 otherwise }
1 π + sin(ωt) 2 + n=1 cos( 2nωt ) 4 n 2 1
Y SC = X M 2 +2 X M X+ X 2 2 X M
Y DC ' ¯ = X M N 0,1 ( x )dx= erfc( X M ), Y AC ' ¯ = 0 2 N 0,1 ( x )dx= 1, Y SC ' ¯ = X M N 0,1 ( x )dx= erfc( X M ).
Y DC ¯ = X M ( x+ X M ) N 0,1 ( x ) dx= X M erfc( X M )+ N 0,1 ( X M ) Y AC ¯ = 0 x N 0,1 ( x ) dx= 2 π Y SC ¯ = X M ( x+ X M ) 2 2 X M N 0,1 ( x ) dx= X M 2 +1 2 X M erfc( X M )+ 1 2 N 0,1 ( X M )

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