Abstract

Ga2O3 photodetectors with interdigitated electrodes have been designed and fabricated, and the Ga2O3 area exposed to illumination acts as the active layer of the photodetector, while the area covered by Au interdigital electrode provide an arena for carrier multiplication. The photodetectors show a maximum responsivity at around 255 nm and a cutoff wavelength of 260 nm, which lies in the solar-blind region. The responsivity of the photodetector reaches 17 A/W when the bias voltage is 20 V, which corresponds to a quantum efficiency of 8228%, amongst the best value ever reported in Ga2O3 film based solar-blind photodetectors.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Xing, H. Y. Wei, E. J. Guo, and F. Yang, “Highly sensitive fast-response UV photodetectors based on epitaxial TiO2 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(37), 375104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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  6. H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  37. L. Esaki, “New phenomenon in narrow germanium p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. 109(2), 603–604 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  38. T. D. Moustakkas and M. Misra, “Origin of the high photoconductive gain in AlGaN films,” Proc. SPIE 6766, 67660C (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, P. G. Li, Y. H. An, H. Liu, X. C. Guo, H. Yan, G. F. Wang, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067–1076 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Nakagomi, T. Momo, S. Takahashi, and Y. Kokubun, “Deep ultraviolet photodiodes based on Ga2O3/SiC heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 072105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Axelevitch, B. Gorenstein, and G. Golan, “Investigation of optical transmission in thin metal films,” Physics Procedia 32, 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2848–2851 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Xing, H. Y. Wei, E. J. Guo, and F. Yang, “Highly sensitive fast-response UV photodetectors based on epitaxial TiO2 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(37), 375104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “ZnO-based interdigitated MSM and MISIM ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(41), 415103 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, Y. Kokubun, N. Arai, and S. Ohira, “Enhancement of responsivity in solar-blind β-Ga2O3 photodiodes with a Au Schottky contact fabricated on single crystal substrates by annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 222102 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Bai, H. D. Liu, D. C. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “High-detectivity and high-single-photon- detection-efficiency 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 300–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101120 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (10)

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Single Schottky-barrier photodiode with interdigitated-finger geometry: Application to diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123507 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, “(Al,In,Ga)N-based photodetectors: some materials issues,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(8), 2859–2877 (2007).

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakkas and M. Misra, “Origin of the high photoconductive gain in AlGaN films,” Proc. SPIE 6766, 67660C (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Ji, J. Du, J. Fan, and W. Wang, “Gallium oxide films for filter and solar-blind UV detector,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 415–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Takagi, H. Tanaka, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Molecular beam epitaxy of high magnesium content single-phase wurzite MgxZn1-xO alloys (x< 0.5) and their application to solar-blind region photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), L401 (2003).

2000 (1)

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433–7473 (1996).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

L. Esaki, “New phenomenon in narrow germanium p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. 109(2), 603–604 (1958).
[Crossref]

Ali, G. M.

G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “ZnO-based interdigitated MSM and MISIM ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(41), 415103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, J.

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Single Schottky-barrier photodiode with interdigitated-finger geometry: Application to diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123507 (2007).
[Crossref]

An, Y. H.

Arai, N.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, Y. Kokubun, N. Arai, and S. Ohira, “Enhancement of responsivity in solar-blind β-Ga2O3 photodiodes with a Au Schottky contact fabricated on single crystal substrates by annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 222102 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Axelevitch, A.

A. Axelevitch, B. Gorenstein, and G. Golan, “Investigation of optical transmission in thin metal films,” Physics Procedia 32, 1–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, X. G.

X. G. Bai, H. D. Liu, D. C. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “High-detectivity and high-single-photon- detection-efficiency 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 300–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bayram, C.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beck, A. L.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

X. G. Bai, H. D. Liu, D. C. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “High-detectivity and high-single-photon- detection-efficiency 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 300–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
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J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
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Chen, P. L.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
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Choy, K. L.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2848–2851 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
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S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
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Collins, C. J.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
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Z. Ji, J. Du, J. Fan, and W. Wang, “Gallium oxide films for filter and solar-blind UV detector,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 415–417 (2006).
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J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
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J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
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Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
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Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
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Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
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Fan, X. W.

W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
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J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
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H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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T. Takagi, H. Tanaka, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Molecular beam epitaxy of high magnesium content single-phase wurzite MgxZn1-xO alloys (x< 0.5) and their application to solar-blind region photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), L401 (2003).

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X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
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Guo, E. J.

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P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
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Guo, X. C.

Hama, K.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
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Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horng, R. H.

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hou, X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
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J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

Z. Ji, J. Du, J. Fan, and W. Wang, “Gallium oxide films for filter and solar-blind UV detector,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 415–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

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M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Single Schottky-barrier photodiode with interdigitated-finger geometry: Application to diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koike, K.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

S. Nakagomi, T. Momo, S. Takahashi, and Y. Kokubun, “Deep ultraviolet photodiodes based on Ga2O3/SiC heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 072105 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, Y. Kokubun, N. Arai, and S. Ohira, “Enhancement of responsivity in solar-blind β-Ga2O3 photodiodes with a Au Schottky contact fabricated on single crystal substrates by annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 222102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kung, P.

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lambert, D. J. H.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. Y.

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, B. H.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2848–2851 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, D. S.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, L. H.

Li, P. G.

Li, Q. H.

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liang, W. S.

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liao, M.

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liao, Y. Koide, and J. Alvarez, “Single Schottky-barrier photodiode with interdigitated-finger geometry: Application to diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Liu, H. D.

X. G. Bai, H. D. Liu, D. C. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “High-detectivity and high-single-photon- detection-efficiency 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 300–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. S.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. Z.

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loya, A.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, F. Y.

W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. Y.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[Crossref]

McClintock, R.

J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101120 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
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C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, D. C.

X. G. Bai, H. D. Liu, D. C. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “High-detectivity and high-single-photon- detection-efficiency 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(3), 300–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Minder, K.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Misra, M.

T. D. Moustakkas and M. Misra, “Origin of the high photoconductive gain in AlGaN films,” Proc. SPIE 6766, 67660C (2007).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Momo, T.

S. Nakagomi, T. Momo, S. Takahashi, and Y. Kokubun, “Deep ultraviolet photodiodes based on Ga2O3/SiC heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 072105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moustakkas, T. D.

T. D. Moustakkas and M. Misra, “Origin of the high photoconductive gain in AlGaN films,” Proc. SPIE 6766, 67660C (2007).
[Crossref]

Munoz, E.

E. Munoz, “(Al,In,Ga)N-based photodetectors: some materials issues,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(8), 2859–2877 (2007).

Nakagomi, S.

S. Nakagomi, T. Momo, S. Takahashi, and Y. Kokubun, “Deep ultraviolet photodiodes based on Ga2O3/SiC heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 072105 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, Y. Kokubun, N. Arai, and S. Ohira, “Enhancement of responsivity in solar-blind β-Ga2O3 photodiodes with a Au Schottky contact fabricated on single crystal substrates by annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 222102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, K. Miura, F. Endo, and S. Nakagomi, “Sol-gel prepared β-Ga2O3 thin films for ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakashima, I.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogata, K.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ohira, S.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, Y. Kokubun, N. Arai, and S. Ohira, “Enhancement of responsivity in solar-blind β-Ga2O3 photodiodes with a Au Schottky contact fabricated on single crystal substrates by annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 222102 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okuno, T.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oshima, T.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pau, J. L.

J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101120 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ravadgar, P.

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101120 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141112 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433–7473 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rogalski, A.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433–7473 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sang, L.

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasa, S.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shan, C. X.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2848–2851 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. Z.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2848–2851 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sheng, T.

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shieh, C. L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silversmith, D.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101120 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Minder, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and D. Silversmith, “Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sing, M. D.

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. L.

Suzuki, N.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, R.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, Y. Kokubun, N. Arai, and S. Ohira, “Enhancement of responsivity in solar-blind β-Ga2O3 photodiodes with a Au Schottky contact fabricated on single crystal substrates by annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 222102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
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Takada, G.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Tanaka, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Molecular beam epitaxy of high magnesium content single-phase wurzite MgxZn1-xO alloys (x< 0.5) and their application to solar-blind region photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), L401 (2003).

Takahashi, S.

S. Nakagomi, T. Momo, S. Takahashi, and Y. Kokubun, “Deep ultraviolet photodiodes based on Ga2O3/SiC heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 072105 (2013).
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Tanaka, H.

T. Takagi, H. Tanaka, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Molecular beam epitaxy of high magnesium content single-phase wurzite MgxZn1-xO alloys (x< 0.5) and their application to solar-blind region photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), L401 (2003).

Tang, W. H.

Tang, Z. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, B.

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulmer, M. P.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M. P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith, “High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. F.

Wang, L. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. P.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. H.

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. Y.

M. D. Sing, W. S. Liang, R. H. Horng, P. Ravadgar, T. Y. Wang, and H. Y. Lee, “Growth and characterization of Ga2O3 on sapphire substrates for UV sensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 826317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Z. Ji, J. Du, J. Fan, and W. Wang, “Gallium oxide films for filter and solar-blind UV detector,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 415–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. J.

W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, H. Y.

J. Xing, H. Y. Wei, E. J. Guo, and F. Yang, “Highly sensitive fast-response UV photodetectors based on epitaxial TiO2 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(37), 375104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. P.

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xing, J.

J. Xing, H. Y. Wei, E. J. Guo, and F. Yang, “Highly sensitive fast-response UV photodetectors based on epitaxial TiO2 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(37), 375104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiu, X. Q.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Yang, B.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(7), 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. L.

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. R.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

J. Xing, H. Y. Wei, E. J. Guo, and F. Yang, “Highly sensitive fast-response UV photodetectors based on epitaxial TiO2 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(37), 375104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yano, M.

K. Koike, K. Hama, I. Nakashima, G. Takada, K. Ogata, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of wide bandgap ZnMgO alloy films on (111)-oriented Si substrate toward UV-detector applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1–4), 288–292 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yue, C.

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, J. Zheng, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “Metal−oxide−semiconductor- structured MgZnO ultraviolet photodetector with high internal gain,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7169–7172 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. W.

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, J. S. Liu, X. W. Zhang, B. H. Li, and D. Z. Shen, “MgZnO avalanche photodetectors realized in Schottky structures,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 7(6), 425–428 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, C. X. Shan, X. M. Huang, X. W. Zhang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “ZnO-based ultraviolet avalanche photodetectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(30), 305105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Y.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

R. Zou, Z. Zhang, Q. Liu, J. Hu, L. Sang, M. Liao, and W. Zhang, “High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts,” Small 10(9), 1848–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped ultraviolet laser diode,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2848–2851 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Liu, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. L. Yang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “High responsivity ultraviolet photodetector realized via a carrier-trapping process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. H.

P. Guo, J. Xiong, X. H. Zhao, T. Sheng, C. Yue, B. Tao, and X. Z. Liu, “Growth characteristics and device properties of MOD derived β-Ga2O3 films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(8), 3629–3632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

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W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
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F. Xie, H. Lu, D. J. Chen, X. Q. Xiu, H. Zhao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Included in your digital subscription metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes fabricated on bulk GaN substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1260–1262 (2011).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

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W. J. Wang, C. X. Shan, H. Zhu, F. Y. Ma, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and K. L. Choy, “Metal–insulator– semiconductor–insulator–metal structured titanium dioxide ultraviolet photodetector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(4), 045102 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Room temperature absorption spectrum of the Ga2O3 films, and the inset shows A2 versus of the β-Ga2O3 thin films (a) and the XRD pattern of the β-Ga2O3 films (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 I– V characteristics of the Ga2O3 photodetector measured under dark and 255 nm light illumination conditions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A typical photoresponse spectrum of the photodetector at 20 V, and the inset shows the maximum responsivity and quantum efficiency of the photodetector as a function of the applied bias.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated electric potential profile of the Au/Ga2O3/Au structure under 20 V with (a) and without (b) 255 nm light illumination conditions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Side view of the Au/Ga2O3/Au structure under 255 nm illumination and (b) Schematic bandgap alignment of the Ga2O3 structure under reverse bias.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the photoresponse parameters among β-Ga2O3 film based photodetectors.

Equations (5)

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( αhν ) 2 =B( hν E g )
α=[ 1 d ]ln( 10 A )
A 2 = B d 2 h 2 ν 2 ( hν E g )
η= hc R λ ( eλ )
D * = R 2q J d

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