Abstract

We present a image quality improvement in a parallax barrier (PB)-based multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system under a real-time tracking of positions of a viewer’s eyes. The system presented exploits a parallax barrier engineered to offer significantly improved quality of three-dimensional images for a moving viewer without an eyewear under the dynamic eye tracking. The improved image quality includes enhanced uniformity of image brightness, reduced point crosstalk, and no pseudoscopic effects. We control the relative ratio between two parameters i.e., a pixel size and the aperture of a parallax barrier slit to improve uniformity of image brightness at a viewing zone. The eye tracking that monitors positions of a viewer’s eyes enables pixel data control software to turn on only pixels for view images near the viewer’s eyes (the other pixels turned off), thus reducing point crosstalk. The eye tracking combined software provides right images for the respective eyes, therefore producing no pseudoscopic effects at its zone boundaries. The viewing zone can be spanned over area larger than the central viewing zone offered by a conventional PB-based multiview autostereoscopic 3D display (no eye tracking). Our 3D display system also provides multiviews for motion parallax under eye tracking.

More importantly, we demonstrate substantial reduction of point crosstalk of images at the viewing zone, its level being comparable to that of a commercialized eyewear-assisted 3D display system. The multiview autostereoscopic 3D display presented can greatly resolve the point crosstalk problem, which is one of the critical factors that make it difficult for previous technologies for a multiview autostereoscopic 3D display to replace an eyewear-assisted counterpart.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (2)

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

K.-H. Lee, Y. Park, H. Lee, S. K. Yoon, and S.-K. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in auto-stereoscopic projection 3D display system,” Opt. Express 20, 19757–19768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

Y. Takai and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18, 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ko, J. Yoon, K. Cha, and K. Kang, “Crosstalk simulation for polarization switching 3D LCD display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 120–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. -C. Chang, C. -Y. Ma, and Y. -P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Shestak and D. Kim, “Application of π cells in time-multiplexed stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays based on LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Ray, “Stereoscopic cinema and the origins of 3-D film,” University of Kenturcky,  64, 1838–1952 (2007).

2006 (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “On the number of views required for head-tracked autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 1–12 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Nam, J. Lee, H. Jang, M. Song, and B. Kim, “Auto-stereoscopic swing 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36, 94–97 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

M. L. Huebschman, B. Munjuluri, and H. R. Garner, “Dynamic holographic 3-D image projection,” Opt. Express 11, 437–445 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, “Dual directional backlight for stereosopic LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 34, 399–401 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Kunzig, ”The hologram revolution,” Discover 23, 55–57 (2002).

2000 (2)

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Autostereoscopic 3-D video display using multiple light beam with scanning,” IEEE Tran. on Circuits Sys. Video Technology 10, 254–260 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays: characterisation and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VII 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1838 (1)

C. Wheatstone, “Contribution to the physiology of vision,” Philos. trans. R. Soc. A 128, 371–394 (1838).
[Crossref]

Baik, I. -S.

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cameron, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cha, K.

Y. Ko, J. Yoon, K. Cha, and K. Kang, “Crosstalk simulation for polarization switching 3D LCD display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 120–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. -C.

Y. -C. Chang, C. -Y. Ma, and Y. -P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chung, I. -J.

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chung, I.-J

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

De La Barre, R.

R. De La Barre, S. Pastoor, and H. Roder, “Method and device for the autostereoscopic representation of image information,” US patent 8,441,522 B2 (issued May 14, 2013).

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “On the number of views required for head-tracked autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 1–12 (2006).

Ezra, D.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays: characterisation and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VII 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Franklin, A. R.

C. Van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, and J. R. Mansell, “Design and applications of multi-view 3D-LCD,” in Proceedings of SID Eurodisplay Design & Apps of 3D-LCD, (1996), pp. 109–112.

Garner, H. R.

Han, T. -H.

Harrold, J.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays: characterisation and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VII 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Holliman, N. S.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Honda, T.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Autostereoscopic 3-D video display using multiple light beam with scanning,” IEEE Tran. on Circuits Sys. Video Technology 10, 254–260 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. M.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Huang, Y. -P.

Y. -C. Chang, C. -Y. Ma, and Y. -P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huebschman, M. L.

Hur, J. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Jacobs, A. M. S.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays: characterisation and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VII 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jang, H.

H. Nam, J. Lee, H. Jang, M. Song, and B. Kim, “Auto-stereoscopic swing 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36, 94–97 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Javidi, B.

Jeong, W. -N.

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jones, G. R.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jung, H. -J.

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.-M.

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Autostereoscopic 3-D video display using multiple light beam with scanning,” IEEE Tran. on Circuits Sys. Video Technology 10, 254–260 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kang, D. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Kang, H.

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, I.-B.

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kang, K.

Y. Ko, J. Yoon, K. Cha, and K. Kang, “Crosstalk simulation for polarization switching 3D LCD display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 120–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

H. Nam, J. Lee, H. Jang, M. Song, and B. Kim, “Auto-stereoscopic swing 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36, 94–97 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

S. Shestak and D. Kim, “Application of π cells in time-multiplexed stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays based on LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Kim, J. S.

Kim, S. S.

Kim, S.-K.

Kim, W.-S.

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y.

Y. Ko, J. Yoon, K. Cha, and K. Kang, “Crosstalk simulation for polarization switching 3D LCD display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 120–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kunzig, R.

R. Kunzig, ”The hologram revolution,” Discover 23, 55–57 (2002).

Lee, C.

Lee, H.

Lee, J.

C. Lee, G. Seo, J. Lee, T. -H. Han, and J. G. Park, “Auto-stereoscopic 3D display with reduced crosstalk,” Opt. Express 19, 24762–24774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nam, J. Lee, H. Jang, M. Song, and B. Kim, “Auto-stereoscopic swing 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36, 94–97 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-H.

Lee, S.-C.

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lueder, E.

E. Lueder, 3D Displays (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012).

Ma, C. -Y.

Y. -C. Chang, C. -Y. Ma, and Y. -P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mansell, J. R.

C. Van Berkel, A. R. Franklin, and J. R. Mansell, “Design and applications of multi-view 3D-LCD,” in Proceedings of SID Eurodisplay Design & Apps of 3D-LCD, (1996), pp. 109–112.

Moseley, R. R.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays: characterisation and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems VII 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Munjuluri, B.

Murakami, O.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, “Dual directional backlight for stereosopic LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 34, 399–401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nago, N.

Nam, H.

H. Nam, J. Lee, H. Jang, M. Song, and B. Kim, “Auto-stereoscopic swing 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36, 94–97 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oda, K.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, “Dual directional backlight for stereosopic LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 34, 399–401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oh, B. S.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Oh, J. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

Park, J. G.

Park, J.-U.

S.-M. Jung, J.-U. Park, S.-C. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, I.-B. Kang, and I.-J Chung, “A novel polarizer-glasses type 3D display with an active retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 09, 348–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, W. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Techical Papers 08, 444–447 (2012).

Park, Y.

Pastoor, S.

R. De La Barre, S. Pastoor, and H. Roder, “Method and device for the autostereoscopic representation of image information,” US patent 8,441,522 B2 (issued May 14, 2013).

Ray, Z.

Z. Ray, “Stereoscopic cinema and the origins of 3-D film,” University of Kenturcky,  64, 1838–1952 (2007).

Roder, H.

R. De La Barre, S. Pastoor, and H. Roder, “Method and device for the autostereoscopic representation of image information,” US patent 8,441,522 B2 (issued May 14, 2013).

Roh, S. -D.

H. Kang, S. -D. Roh, I. -S. Baik, H. -J. Jung, W. -N. Jeong, J. -K. Shin, and I. -J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sasagawa, T.

T. Sasagawa, A. Yuuki, S. Tahata, O. Murakami, and K. Oda, “Dual directional backlight for stereosopic LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 34, 399–401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saveljev, V. V.

Seo, G.

Shestak, S.

S. Shestak and D. Kim, “Application of π cells in time-multiplexed stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays based on LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shin, J. -K.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (7412 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of 4-view autostereoscopic 3D display with a PB whose aperture size is similar to a pixel size and the corresponding image illuminance along the horizontal line of a viewing zone. DP denotes the display pixels. Different coordinate systems are used to distinguish horizontal positions between on display pixel surface and on a viewing zone.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of a 3D display with the PB slit size as about twice as that of Fig. 1, (b) sketch of the corresponding illuminance at a viewing zone, (c) illuminance as a result of selective turn-on of display pixels under dynamic eye tracking. DP: display pixels, PB: parallax barrier
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A geometrical tracing of optical rays that forms diamond shape viewing zones in a 4-view autostereoscopic display with a PB slit width of W (a) and of 2W (b). The viewing zone area remains similar as the slit size changes by twice. However, the fact that the case of (b) allows more number of yellow shaded regions of optical rays which emit from an entire area of a pixel surface and converge on a point within a viewing zone than the case of (a) indicates the presence of a widened viewing zone that produces uniform illuminance of a given view. DP: display pixels, PB: parallax barrier, OVD: optimum viewing distance.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illuminance distributions of view images of an 8 view autostereoscopic 3D display system, obtained from ray tracing simulation (a) and experiments (b). Simulation results were generated at OVD of 600 mm while experimental results were obtained at the OVD of 650 mm (experimental OVD). The point crosstalk is 30.9% at all sweet spots in (a) while 97–105% at sweet spots in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Illuminance distributions of view images obtained from optical ray tracing simulation with W = 200 μm at OVD of 600 mm before [(a)] and after [(b)] elimination of 3 intermediate view images between both eyes of a viewer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illuminance distributions of view images obtained from experiments with W = 200 μm at OVD of 570 mm before [(a)] and after [(b)] elimination of 3 intermediate view images between both eyes of a viewer. Point cross talk averaged over each viewing zone bounded by the dotted lines is given in blue for a left eye and in red for a right eye.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Illuminance distributions of view images, obtained from optical ray tracing simulation with W = 250 μm at OVD of 600 mm before [(a)] and after [(b)] elimination of 3 intermediate view images between both eyes of a viewer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Illuminance distributions of view images obtained from experiments with W = 250 μm at OVD of 595 mm before [(a)] and after [(b)] elimination of 3 intermediate view images between both eyes of a viewer.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental setup for the 8-view autostereoscopic 3D display with a parallax barrier under a real-time eye tracking.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental reconstruction of binocular parallax distinguishable by colors in the 8-view autostereoscopic 3D display at a viewing zone separated by 570 mm from the display panel. The binocular parallaxes were reconstructed for different horizontal positions of the center of two eyes, i.e., x = −50 mm (a), 0 mm (b), and +50 mm (c) with its vertical position taken as the same as the display panel center.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 An image captured from the footage provided to show the point crosstalk by using vertical (left eye) and horizontal (right eye) stripes. The point crosstalk level of ≤ 7% is comparable to that of a commercialized eyewear-assisted 3D display (See Media 1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters used for the 3D display design.

Equations (5)

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I ( x ) = all pixel surf . S ( x ) T ( x , x ) d x ,
T ( x , x ) = { 1 if 1 β α x W β 2 α x 1 β α x + W β 2 α 0 otherwise ,
η k N ( x ) [ % ] [ i = 1 N I i ( x ) ] I k ( x ) I k ( x ) × 100 ,
Λ = 4 W P S / ( W P + S ) = 4 W ,
α = OVD W P / S ,

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