Abstract

A TO-38-can packaged Gallium nitride (GaN) blue laser diode (LD) based free-space visible light communication (VLC) with 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 32-subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission at 9 Gbps is preliminarily demonstrated over a 5-m free-space link. The 3-dB analog modulation bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD biased at 65 mA and controlled at 25°C is only 900 MHz, which can be extended to 1.5 GHz for OFDM encoding after throughput intensity optimization. When delivering the 4-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth, the error vector magnitude (EVM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) of the received data are observed as 8.4%, 22.4 dB and 3.5 × 10−8, respectively. By increasing the encoded bandwidth to 1.5 GHz, the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD enlarges its transmission capacity to 6 Gbps but degrades its transmitted BER to 1.7 × 10−3. The same transmission capacity of 6 Gbps can also be achieved with a BER of 1 × 10−6 by encoding 64-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth. Using the 1.5-GHz full bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD provides the 64-QAM OFDM transmission up to 9 Gbps, which successfully delivers data with an EVM of 5.1%, an SNR of 22 dB and a BER of 3.6 × 10−3 passed the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

C.-T. Tsai, M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “A novel colorless FPLD packaged with TO-can for 30-Gbit/s preamplified 64-QAM-OFDM transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1500313 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Singh and R. Bharti, “163m/10Gbps 4QAM-OFDM visible light communication,” IJETR 2, 225–228 (2014).

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Area Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, and S.-H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4252–4255 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Bharti, R.

S. Singh and R. Bharti, “163m/10Gbps 4QAM-OFDM visible light communication,” IJETR 2, 225–228 (2014).

Chang, C.-H.

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. T.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

Cheng, M.-C.

C.-T. Tsai, M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “A novel colorless FPLD packaged with TO-can for 30-Gbit/s preamplified 64-QAM-OFDM transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1500313 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, Y.-C.

C.-T. Tsai, M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “A novel colorless FPLD packaged with TO-can for 30-Gbit/s preamplified 64-QAM-OFDM transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1500313 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, I. B.

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grzanka, S.

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanson, F.

Hu, F. C.

Huang, P. Y.

Jung, D.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, and S.-H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4252–4255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leszczynski, M.

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-C.

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

C.-T. Tsai, M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “A novel colorless FPLD packaged with TO-can for 30-Gbit/s preamplified 64-QAM-OFDM transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1500313 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.-C.

Lin, W.-Y.

Lin, Y. P.

Lin, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Area Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-P.

Liu, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. F.

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. H.

Lu, H.-H.

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Najda, S. P.

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

S. Singh and R. Bharti, “163m/10Gbps 4QAM-OFDM visible light communication,” IJETR 2, 225–228 (2014).

Tan, M.

Targowski, G.

Tien, P.-L.

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Area Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-T.

C.-T. Tsai, M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “A novel colorless FPLD packaged with TO-can for 30-Gbit/s preamplified 64-QAM-OFDM transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1500313 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-C.

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, and S.-H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4252–4255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasic, B.

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, J. Y.

Won, E. T.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.-W.

Wu, P. Y.

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yen, S.-H.

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, and S.-H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4252–4255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y. A.

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zeng, L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.-D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Zhang and Y. A. Yin, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with a special designed AlGaN/GaN superlattice electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221103 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Area Commun. (1)

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Area Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-T. Tsai, M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “A novel colorless FPLD packaged with TO-can for 30-Gbit/s preamplified 64-QAM-OFDM transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1500313 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ Visible Light Communications Using a Postequalized White LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

IJETR (1)

S. Singh and R. Bharti, “163m/10Gbps 4QAM-OFDM visible light communication,” IJETR 2, 225–228 (2014).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, and S.-H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4252–4255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for optical communications (America: Academic Press, 2009), Chap. 2.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs,” in Proc.Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2010), San Diego, CA, paper OThH3.
[Crossref]

R. M. Schmogrow, Real-time Digital Signal Processing for Software-Defined Optical Transmitters and Receivers (KIT Scientific, 2014), Chap. 4.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Proc.Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2013), Anaheim, CA, paper OTh1G4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD with a copper-based cooling mount for QAM OFDM data transmission over a free-space link.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Conceptual diagram for OFDM transmitter and receiver, Inset: the matrix of the OFDM generation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD with a self-designed temperature controlling system. (b) Power-to-current curve of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The small-signal frequency response of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD. (b) The RF spectra of 4-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM data carried by the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD at different biased currents.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The (a) SNRs, (b) constellation plots and related BERs of 4-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM data carried by the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD biased at different currents.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The received (a) waveforms, (b) RF spectra and (c) constellation plots of 16/64-QAM OFDM data covering the bandwidth of 1 and 1.5 GHz, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The (a) SNRs, constellation plots and related BERs of TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD delivered QAM OFDM data with different QAM levels and OFDM bandwidths.

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