Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel method to improve the long-term stability of the wideband tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) where a dynamic compensation scheme is achieved to offset the parameter variation of the fiber. In our method, a 900 MHz calibration signal transmits in the fiber link of the OEO’s feedback loop for establishing a servo system which can extract the time delay of the feedback loop. The time delay varies with the external environment because refractive index and length of the fiber fluctuate with ambient temperature variations. Taking the extracted information as the reference, the wavelength of the tunable laser used in the OEO can be controlled precisely and continually to offset the random delay fluctuation in the fiber. Consequently, the long-term stability of the microwave signal generated by the OEO can be optimized. The experiment results show that Allan deviation achieved in 1000-s averaging time is improved more than two orders of magnitude when the tunable OEO worked at 2.4 GHz.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Dual microwave and optical oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1867–1869 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Jiang, J. H. Wong, H. Q. Lam, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, P. H. Lim, K. E. Lee, P. P. Shum, and X. Zhang, “An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16381–16389 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  21. http://www.lightwavestore.com/product_datasheet/FSC-SMF-SPOOL-080C_pdf3.pdf .
  22. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (6)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aditya, S.

Amy-Klein, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Batagelj, B.

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bogataj, L.

Chardonnet, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. Y.

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Daussy, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davila-Rodriguez, J.

Delfyett, P. J.

Eliyahu, D.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, “Progress in the opto-electronic oscillator - a ten year anniversary review,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Fort Worth, TX, 2004), pp. 287–290.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2002), pp. 580–583.
[Crossref]

Fang, T.

Feng, K. M.

Guo, P.

Hou, D.

Y. L. Zhang, D. Hou, and J. Y. Zhao, “Long-term frequency stabilization of an optoelectronic oscillator using phase-locked loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2408–2414 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

Ji, Y.

Jiang, F.

Kamran, M.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2002), pp. 580–583.
[Crossref]

Lam, H. Q.

Lee, K. E.

Li, J.

Lim, P. H.

Lin, J.

Lopez, O.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lours, M.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, L.

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Dual microwave and optical oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1867–1869 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, “Progress in the opto-electronic oscillator - a ten year anniversary review,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Fort Worth, TX, 2004), pp. 287–290.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

Mandridis, D.

Matsko, A. B.

Narbonneau, F.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pu, T.

Ren, T.

Salik, E.

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sariri, K.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2002), pp. 580–583.
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

Shum, P. P.

Sun, T.

Tang, G.

Tokhmakhian, M.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2002), pp. 580–583.
[Crossref]

Tseng, W. H.

Vidmar, M.

Wang, R.

Williams, C.

Wong, J. H.

Wu, J. T.

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Xiang, P.

Xie, X.

Xie, X. P.

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, J.

Xu, K.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Dual microwave and optical oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1867–1869 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, “Progress in the opto-electronic oscillator - a ten year anniversary review,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Fort Worth, TX, 2004), pp. 287–290.
[Crossref]

Yin, F.

Yu, N.

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y. L.

Y. L. Zhang, D. Hou, and J. Y. Zhao, “Long-term frequency stabilization of an optoelectronic oscillator using phase-locked loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2408–2414 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, J. Y.

Y. L. Zhang, D. Hou, and J. Y. Zhao, “Long-term frequency stabilization of an optoelectronic oscillator using phase-locked loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2408–2414 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zhou, J.

Zhu, L.

Zhu, X.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “An ultralow phase noise coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 444–446 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

http://www.lightwavestore.com/product_datasheet/FSC-SMF-SPOOL-080C_pdf3.pdf .

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, “Progress in the opto-electronic oscillator - a ten year anniversary review,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (Fort Worth, TX, 2004), pp. 287–290.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2002), pp. 580–583.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The principle and experimental setup of the tunable OEO with the proposed dynamic feedback compensation scheme. WTL: wavelength tunable laser; DA-MZM: dual-arm Mach-Zehnder modulator; PD: photodetector; LNA: low noise amplifier; BPF: band-pass filter; T-BPF: tunable BPF, PID: proportional-integral-derivative module.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measurement results of the free-running OEO oscillating frequency (blue curve) versus delay variation signal (red curve)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OEO oscillating frequency variation before (blue curve) and after (red curve) compensation
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Allan deviation of the measured oscillating frequencies of the proposed OEO without (blue square) and with (red circle) compensation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The phase noise of the proposed OEO oscillating at 2.4 GHz without and with compensation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Frequency drift of OEO working at 10 GHz, with (red) and without (blue) compensation in 10 minutes.

Equations (1)

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Δ τ D =DLΔλ

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