Abstract

We report an effective method to extract light from quantum-dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) by embedding an internal nano-scattering pattern structure. We use finite-difference time-domain method to analyze the light extraction efficiency of red QLEDs with periodic, quasi-random, and random internal nano-scattering pattern structures. Our simulation results indicate that random internal nano-scattering pattern can greatly enhance the outcoupling efficiency while keeping wide viewing angle for the red QLED. Similar results are obtained by extending this approach to green and blue QLEDs. With the proposed red, green, and blue QLEDs combination, we achieve 105.1% Rec. 2020 color gamut in CIE 1976 color space. We demonstrate that internal nano-scattering pattern structures are attractive for display applications, especially for enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of blue QLEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (9)

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

J. W. Kim, J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J. H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S. T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 7800412 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jang and M. C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coe-Sullivan, W. Liu, P. Allen, and J. S. Steckel, “Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3026–R3030 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Bourzac, “Quantum dots go on display,” Nature 493(7432), 283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 38(09), 703–711 (2013).

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A366–A380 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. A. Reinke, C. Ackermann, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction via leaky modes in organic light emitting devices,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 191–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Do, Y. Kim, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271(5251), 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, C.

N. A. Reinke, C. Ackermann, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction via leaky modes in organic light emitting devices,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 191–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271(5251), 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

Allen, P.

S. Coe-Sullivan, W. Liu, P. Allen, and J. S. Steckel, “Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3026–R3030 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anikeeva, P. O.

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, W. K.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Bawendi, M.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 38(09), 703–711 (2013).

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bourzac, K.

K. Bourzac, “Quantum dots go on display,” Nature 493(7432), 283 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breen, C.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 7800412 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. A. Reinke, C. Ackermann, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction via leaky modes in organic light emitting devices,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 191–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 38(09), 703–711 (2013).

P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Char, K.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cho, D. H.

Cho, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N. S.

Cho, S.

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

Coe-Sullivan, S.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coe-Sullivan, W. Liu, P. Allen, and J. S. Steckel, “Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3026–R3030 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dang, C.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
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Dev, K.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
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Dixon, J. D.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
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Do, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
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Y. Do, Y. Kim, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
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Fan, S.

Frischeisen, J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
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Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
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Han, J. H.

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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Holloway, P. H.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
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Huh, J.

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
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Huh, J. W.

Hwang, J.

Hyvonen, J.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
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Jang, J.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
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J. W. Kim, J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
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J. H. Jang and M. C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
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Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
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Jin, Y.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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Joo, C. W.

Kang, H. D.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
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Kazlas, P. T.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
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Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
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H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
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H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
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Kim, J. W.

Kim, S.

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
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Kim, T.-W.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
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Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
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Y. Do, Y. Kim, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ko, H.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
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Krauss, T. F.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
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Kwak, J.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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Kwon, Y.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J. H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. I.

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Do, Y. Kim, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

S. Coe-Sullivan, W. Liu, P. Allen, and J. S. Steckel, “Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3026–R3030 (2013).
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Liu, Y.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martins, E. R.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mashford, B. S.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mayr, C.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 7800412 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mohd Yusoff, A. R.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mohney, S. E.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

Moon, J. H.

Murray, C. B.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
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Mutlugun, E.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K. A.

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Niu, Y.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[Crossref]

Oh, M. C.

J. W. Kim, J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Jang and M. C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, I.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, M.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. K.

Peng, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popovic, Z.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raman, A.

Reinke, N. A.

N. A. Reinke, C. Ackermann, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction via leaky modes in organic light emitting devices,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 191–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ruzyllo, J.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, T. D.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 7800412 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scholz, B. J.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 7800412 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seol, Y.-G.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Shin, J. W.

Shirasaki, Y.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 38(09), 703–711 (2013).

Song, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Do, Y. Kim, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steckel, J.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steckel, J. S.

S. Coe-Sullivan, W. Liu, P. Allen, and J. S. Steckel, “Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3026–R3030 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, M.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Supran, G. J.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 38(09), 703–711 (2013).

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, Z.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Titove, A.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Wang, A. Y.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Wang, J.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Woo, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Xu, D.

Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, J.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Yoon, Y.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Zhang, F.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

Zhu, T.

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

K. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. D. Kang, B. Park, Y. Kwon, H. Ko, C. Lee, J. Lee, and H. Yang, “Over 40 cd/A efficient green quantum dot electroluminescent device comprising uniquely large-sized quantum dots,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4893–4901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

X. Yang, K. Dev, J. Wang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Y. Tang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using large-scale nanopillar arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(38), 5977–5984 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titove, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Lee, S. Kim, J. Huh, G. Kim, Y. Lee, S. Cho, Y. Kim, and Y. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Song, Y. Lee, Y. Lee, and Y. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Coe-Sullivan, W. Liu, P. Allen, and J. S. Steckel, “Quantum dots for LED downconversion in display applications,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3026–R3030 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 7800412 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Do, Y. Kim, Y. Song, and Y. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

J. H. Jang and M. C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (3)

Z. Tan, F. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, A. Y. Wang, J. D. Dixon, L. Li, Q. Zhang, S. E. Mohney, and J. Ruzyllo, “Bright and color-saturated emission from blue light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3803–3807 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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P. O. Anikeeva, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electroluminescence from a mixed red-green-blue colloidal quantum dot monolayer,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2196–2200 (2007).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 38(09), 703–711 (2013).

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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Opt. Express (4)

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Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86(4), 041404 (2012).
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W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2012).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A typical structure of red QLED and (b) PL spectrum of the reported red QDs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The ratios of different optical channels for the red QLED.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Red QLED with internal nano-scattering pattern.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of periodic internal nano-scattering pattern s for red QLEDs: pattern parameter of 1200nm and height of 80nm
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated angular radiated patterns of red QLED with and without periodic internal nano-scattering pattern.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of quasi-random internal nano-scattering pattern for red QLEDs: the period of the supercell is 700nm, while the height of the nano-rods is 80nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated angular radiation patterns of red QLED with and without quasi-random internal nano-scattering pattern.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of red QLEDs with random internal nano-scattering pattern: pattern parameter = 1200nm and height = 80nm. Both displacement and variation of width characterize the randomness of pattern.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Angular radiated patterns of red QLED with and without random internal nano-scattering pattern, and (b) enhancement ratio of patterned QLEDs with different randomness.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Normalized luminance distribution of red QLED without (black line) and with periodic (red line), quasi-random (blue line), and random (cyan line) internal nano-scattering patterns.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Normalized luminance distribution of (a) green QLED and (b) blue QLED without (black line) and with periodic (red line), quasi-random (blue line), and random (cyan line) internal nano-scattering patterns.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Spectral profile of RGB primaries for our proposed QLED display.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Color gamut of Rec. 2020 and RGB QLED with and without random internal nano-scattering pattern in (a) CIE1976 and (b) CIE1931.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural parameters of internal nano-scattering pattern for RGB QLEDs.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

EQE=ηIQE=ηγ q eff ,
P=1q+qF=1q+q λ 1 λ 2 S(λ) 0 K( k x )d k x dλ ,
q eff q = F qF+1q .
K= 1 3 K TMv + 2 3 ( K TMh + K TEh ).
k out = k in m 2π a , m=0, ±1, ±2,....
D65(a X r +b X g +c X b ,a Y r +b Y g +cb Y b ,a Z r +b Z g +c Z b )=aR+bG+cB
{ x w = k r x r + k g x g + k b x b y w = k r y r + k g y g + k b y b z w =1 x w y w ,
{ k r = a( X r + Y r + Z r ) a( X r + Y r + Z r )+b( X g + Y g + Z g )+c( X b + Y b + Z b ) k g = b( X g + Y g + Z g ) a( X r + Y r + Z r )+b( X g + Y g + Z g )+c( X b + Y b + Z b ) k b = c( X c + Y c + Z c ) a( X r + Y r + Z r )+b( X g + Y g + Z g )+c( X b + Y b + Z b ) .

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