Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP), an emerging narrow direct band-gap two-dimensional (2D) layered material that can fill the gap between the semi-metallic graphene and the wide-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), had been experimentally found to exhibit the saturation of optical absorption if under strong light illumination. By taking advantage of this saturable absorption property, we could fabricate a new type of optical saturable absorber (SA) based on mechanically exfoliated BPs, and further demonstrate the applications for ultra-fast laser photonics. Based on the balanced synchronous twin-detector measurement method, we have characterized the saturable absorption property of the fabricated BP-SAs at the telecommunication band. By incorporating the BP-based SAs device into the all-fiber Erbium-doped fiber laser cavities, we are able to obtain either the passive Q-switching (with maximum pulse energy of 94.3 nJ) or the passive mode-locking operation (with pulse duration down to 946 fs). Our results show that BP could also be developed as an effective SA for pulsed fiber or solid-state lasers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (5)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, J. H. Lee, X. Liu, K. S. Chen, and M. C. Hersam, “Solvent exfoliation of electronic-grade, two-dimensional black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(4), 3596–3604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. L. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber -based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (18)

W. Liu, C. Ren, H. Han, J. Tan, Y. Zou, X. Zhou, P. Huai, and H. Xu, “First-principles study of the effect of phosphorus on nickel grain boundary,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043706 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Strain-induced gap modification in black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 176801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6414–6417 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS(2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. O. H. Churchill and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Two-dimensional crystals: phosphorus joins the family,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 330–331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H. J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y. Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Rudenko and M. I. Katsnelson, “Quasiparticle band structure and tight-binding model for single-and bilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(20), 201408 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Dong, C. Y. Liaw, J. Z. Hao, and J. H. Hu, “Nanotube Q-switched low-threshold linear cavity tunable erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 49(31), 5989–5992 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbiumdoped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. A. Gomes, L. Orsila, T. Jouhti, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Picosecond SESAM-based ytterbium mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 129–136 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 782–784 (2000).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

D. A. Stetser and A. J. DeMaria, “Optical spectra of ultrashort optical pulses generated by mode-locked glass: Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9(3), 118–120 (1966).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, F. D. Muhammad, A. Z. Zulkifli, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(3), 202–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, J. V.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6414–6417 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanter, S. I.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buscema, M.

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1(2), 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Cao, G.

Carvalho, A.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The process of mechanical exfoliation method. (b) Raman spectra of BP
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical image of the fiber end-facet (fiber cladding diameter of 125 μm, fiber core diameter of 9 μm) covered with relatively thick (a) and thin (b) BP and the measured saturable absorption data and its corresponding fitting curve of relatively thick (c) and thin (d) BP
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental setup of the BP-SA based Q-switching Erbium-doped fiber laser.(b) The fiber ending coated by BP. The crystal structure of BP: (c) 3D view; (d) lateral view; (e) top view
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Typical characteristics of Q-switching pulse emitted from our BP-SA-based fiber laser at pump power of 110 mW: (a) Output pulse train; (b) Single pulse profile; (c) optical spectrum; (d) corresponding RF spectrum
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Output pulse trains obtained at different pump powers
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The evolution of output average power and pulse energy (a), pulse repetition rate and duration and (b) as pump power increases
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Typical Mode-locking output: (a) Output pulse train; (b) the corresponding spectrum; (c) the measured autocorrelation trace and its fitting curve; (d) RF spectrum. Inset: RF spectrum in 1 GHz span
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Long term stability of the output spectra measured under different time.

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