Abstract

Atomic force microscope (AFM)-enabled manipulation of individual metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has proven useful for assembling diverse structural motifs of metamolecules. However, for the reliable verifications of their electric/magnetic behaviors and translations into practical applications (e.g., metasurfaces), currently available assembly of polygonal shaped metallic NPs with size and shape distributions should be further advanced. Here, we discover conditions for AFM-enabled, deterministic assembly of highly uniform, super-spherical gold NPs (AuNPs) into the metamolecules, which can show the designed electric/magnetic resonance behaviors in a highly reliable fashion. The use of super-spherical AuNPs together with the controlled adhesive properties of an AFM tip allows us to linearly and continuously push AuNPs toward the pre-programed directions and positions with minimized slipping away effect. Thus, a versatile and fast (as little as few minutes per each metamolecule) assembly of metamolecules with unprecedented structural fidelity becomes possible via AFM-enabled manipulation; enabling a high precision engineering of electromagnetic properties with metamolecules.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
A bottom-up approach to fabricate optical metamaterials by self-assembled metallic nanoparticles

José Dintinger, Stefan Mühlig, Carsten Rockstuhl, and Toralf Scharf
Opt. Mater. Express 2(3) 269-278 (2012)

Nanostructures for surface plasmons

Junxi Zhang and Lide Zhang
Adv. Opt. Photon. 4(2) 157-321 (2012)

Using highly uniform and smooth selenium colloids as low-loss magnetodielectric building blocks of optical metafluids

Yongdeok Cho, Ji-Hyeok Huh, Kyung Jin Park, Kwangjin Kim, Jaewon Lee, and Seungwoo Lee
Opt. Express 25(12) 13822-13833 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. A. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, J. A. Fan, F. Capasso, D. Brandl, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: a path towards negative-index metafluids,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14129–14145 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. Lee and J. Kim, “Efficient confinement of ultraviolet light into a self-assembled, dielectric colloidal monolayer on a flat aluminium film,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112002 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nat. Phys. Sci (Lond.) 241(105), 20–22 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. D. Perrault and W. C. W. Chan, “Synthesis and surface modification of highly monodispersed, spherical gold nanoparticles of 50-200 nm,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(47), 17042–17043 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. A. A. G. Requicha, “Nanomanipulation with the atomic force microscope,” Nanotechnology; R. Waser, eds. (Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2008), pp. 239−273.
  32. S. Kim, D. C. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Atomic force microscope nanomanipulation with simultaneous visual guidance,” ACS Nano 3(10), 2989–2994 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater. 24(16), 2069–2103 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee and J. Kim, “Efficient confinement of ultraviolet light into a self-assembled, dielectric colloidal monolayer on a flat aluminium film,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater. 24(16), 2069–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. D. Perrault and W. C. W. Chan, “Synthesis and surface modification of highly monodispersed, spherical gold nanoparticles of 50-200 nm,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(47), 17042–17043 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, D. C. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Atomic force microscope nanomanipulation with simultaneous visual guidance,” ACS Nano 3(10), 2989–2994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nat. Phys. Sci (Lond.) 241(105), 20–22 (1973).
[Crossref]

Akhavan, S.

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alaeian, H.

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bachelot, R.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, D. R.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billot, L.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandl, D.

Capasso, F.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, J. A. Fan, F. Capasso, D. Brandl, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: a path towards negative-index metafluids,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14129–14145 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W. C. W.

S. D. Perrault and W. C. W. Chan, “Synthesis and surface modification of highly monodispersed, spherical gold nanoparticles of 50-200 nm,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(47), 17042–17043 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

D’Addato, S.

M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, S.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J. A.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, J. A. Fan, F. Capasso, D. Brandl, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: a path towards negative-index metafluids,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14129–14145 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frens, G.

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nat. Phys. Sci (Lond.) 241(105), 20–22 (1973).
[Crossref]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grand, J.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gungor, K.

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartsfield, T.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henkel, C.

T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, T.

T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hubert, C.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H. S.

S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater. 24(16), 2069–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K.-Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kante, B.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. Lee and J. Kim, “Efficient confinement of ultraviolet light into a self-assembled, dielectric colloidal monolayer on a flat aluminium film,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-Y.

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, D. C. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Atomic force microscope nanomanipulation with simultaneous visual guidance,” ACS Nano 3(10), 2989–2994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-T.

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, M. W.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, A. L.

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostcheev, S.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwak, M. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Large, N.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, K. Q.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee and J. Kim, “Efficient confinement of ultraviolet light into a self-assembled, dielectric colloidal monolayer on a flat aluminium film,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112002 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater. 24(16), 2069–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-A.

S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, D. C. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Atomic force microscope nanomanipulation with simultaneous visual guidance,” ACS Nano 3(10), 2989–2994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.-X.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, V. N.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariscal, M. M.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, B.

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monticone, F.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mutlugun, E.

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, J. A. Fan, F. Capasso, D. Brandl, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: a path towards negative-index metafluids,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14129–14145 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paolicelli, G.

M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papke, T.

T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-K.

S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater. 24(16), 2069–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, N.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perrault, S. D.

S. D. Perrault and W. C. W. Chan, “Synthesis and surface modification of highly monodispersed, spherical gold nanoparticles of 50-200 nm,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(47), 17042–17043 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratchford, D.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratchford, D. C.

S. Kim, D. C. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Atomic force microscope nanomanipulation with simultaneous visual guidance,” ACS Nano 3(10), 2989–2994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Royer, P.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rumyantseva, A.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacanna, S.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salandrino, A.

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santer, S.

T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schade, N. B.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafiei, F.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheikholeslami, S. N.

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, J. A. Fan, F. Capasso, D. Brandl, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: a path towards negative-index metafluids,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14129–14145 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talyor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathi, M.

M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urban, A. S.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valeri, S.

M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vial, A.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xin, Z.

T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yadavalli, N. S.

T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, G.-R.

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

T. Papke, N. S. Yadavalli, C. Henkel, and S. Santer, “Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14174–14180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

Y.-J. Lee, N. B. Schade, L. Sun, J. A. Fan, D. R. Bae, M. M. Mariscal, G. Lee, F. Capasso, S. Sacanna, V. N. Manoharan, and G.-R. Yi, “Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics,” ACS Nano 7(12), 11064–11070 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, D. C. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Atomic force microscope nanomanipulation with simultaneous visual guidance,” ACS Nano 3(10), 2989–2994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, and J.-K. Park, “Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials,” Adv. Mater. 24(16), 2069–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-A. Lee, H. S. Kang, J.-K. Park, and S. Lee, “Vertically oriented, three-dimensionally tapered deep-subwavelength metallic nanohole arrays developed by photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 26(44), 7521–7528 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, S. Kim, T.-T. Kim, Y. Kim, M. Choi, S. H. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and B. Min, “Reversibly stretchable and tunable terahertz metamaterials with wrinkled layouts,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3491–3497 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Lee and J. Kim, “Efficient confinement of ultraviolet light into a self-assembled, dielectric colloidal monolayer on a flat aluminium film,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Hu, W. J. Padilla, Z. Xin, and R. D. Averitt, “Recent progress in electromagnetic metamaterial devices for terahertz applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 92–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. D. Perrault and W. C. W. Chan, “Synthesis and surface modification of highly monodispersed, spherical gold nanoparticles of 50-200 nm,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(47), 17042–17043 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 615–619 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Urban, X. Shen, Y. Wang, N. Large, H. Wang, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, H. Chen, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4399–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (3)

S. Kim, F. Shafiei, D. Ratchford, and X. Li, “Controlled AFM manipulation of small nanoparticles and assembly of hybrid nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 22(11), 115301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tripathi, G. Paolicelli, S. D’Addato, and S. Valeri, “Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures,” Nanotechnology 23(24), 245706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akhavan, K. Gungor, E. Mutlugun, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers,” Nanotechnology 24(15), 155201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Shi, F. Monticone, S. Elias, Y. Wu, D. Ratchford, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, X. Ni, X. Yin, B. Kante, P. Zhang, J. Zhu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Feedback-driven self-assembly of symmetry-breaking optical metamaterials in solution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1002–1006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, and X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Talyor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. Sci (Lond.) (1)

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nat. Phys. Sci (Lond.) 241(105), 20–22 (1973).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (4)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. A. G. Requicha, “Nanomanipulation with the atomic force microscope,” Nanotechnology; R. Waser, eds. (Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2008), pp. 239−273.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic for atomic force microscope (AFM)-enabled manipulation of super-spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by vector lithography mode (NTEGRA spectra, NT-MDT). (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of platinum-iridium (Pt-Ir) coated AFM tip. (c) Dark-field optical microscopic image of super-spherical AuNPs (size of 80 nm) dispersed onto silicon wafer with SEM image (inset). (d) Experimentally measured adhesion force between the loaded AFM tip and polymeric (poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), polyDADMAC) thin film, which was used for the stabilization of super-spherical AuNPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Snapshot series of AFM images during linear vector manipulation of AuNPs. (a) For super-spherical AuNPs. (b) polygonal shaped AuNPs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-b) Deterministic assembly of metamolecules (i.e., dimer, trimer, and asymmetric tetramer) by AFM-enabled manipulation of superspherical AuNPs onto (a) poly(disperse red 1) (pDR1) film (route mean square roughness (RMS) of 2.38 nm for left panel and RMS of 1.63 for right panel) and (b) oxygen plasma-treated glass substrate (RMS of 2.04 nm for left panel and RMS of 2.38 nm for right panel). The orange, light blue, and white arrows indicate the linear vector direction for the assembly of dimer, trimer, and asymmetric tetramer, respectively. The white dotted lines is the reference for clarity. (c) 2D/3D AFM topographic images and SEM images of assembled metamolecules (from top to bottom: dimer (RMS of 1.76 nm), trimer (RMS of 1.87 nm), and asymmetric tetramer (RMS of 2.68 nm). (d) Dark-field optical microscopic images before and after assembly by AFM-enabled linear vector manipulation. The orange, light blue, and white arrows indicate the linear vector direction for the assembly of dimer, trimer, and asymmetric tetramer, respectively. The white dotted boxes correspond to AFM topographic images in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-d) Numerically simulated and experimentally measured dark-field scattering spectra (averaged intensity) of the assembled metamolecules including monomer (a), dimer (b), trimer (c), and asymmetric tetramer (d). The insets of (c) and (d) represent magnetic near-field distribution at 768 nm of (c) and at 761 nm (d). (e) Electric near-field distribution of trimer at 768 nm (i.e., resonance wavelength of magnetic dipole). (f) Electric near-field distribution of asymmetric tetramer at 761 nm (i.e., resonance wavelength of magnetic dipole). In both trimer and asymmetric tetramer, the circulating electric fields were clearly verified at the resonance wavelength of magnetic dipole.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a-b) AFM topographic images (left panel) and dark-field (DF) optical microscope images (right panel) before (a) and after (b) assembly of four different trimers: trimer 1 (assembly of AuNP no. 1, no. 2, and no. 3), 2 (assembly of AuNP no. 4, no. 5, and no. 6), 3 (assembly of AuNP no. 7, no. 8, and no. 9), and 4 (assembly of AuNP no. 10, no. 11, and no. 12). The white arrows in AFM topographic images indicate the linear vector direction of manipulation. (c) Experimentally measured dark-field scattering spectra (averaged intensity) of four different trimers. (d) Numerically simulated and experimentally measured dark-field scattering spectra (averaged intensity) of trimer with large gap (i.e., 90 nm), which is marked by gray star in (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dark-field optical microscope images before (left panel) and after (right panel) assembly of two different trimers (trimer 1 and 2 in right panel) by use of polygonal shaped AuNPs, synthesized by conventional citrate method. (b) SEM images of representative trimers made of polygonal shaped AuNPs. (c) Experimentally measured dark-field scattering spectra of trimer 1 and 2 in right panel of (a).

Metrics