Abstract

In this work we present an optical technique for characterizing sub-micrometric areas based on reflectivity of the light as a function of angle of incidence for the two pure polarizations s and p, covering a range of angles of incidence from −71.80° to 71.80° with a resolution of 0.1°. Circular areas with a diameter in the order of 600 nm can be characterized, and the spectra for the two polarizations can be obtained with a single measurement. For biosensing purposes, we have fabricated several Bio Photonic Sensing Cells (BICELLs) consisting of interferometers of 1240 nm of SU-8 polymer over silicon. An indirect immunoassay is performed over these BICELLs and compared experimentally with FT-VIS-NIR spectrometry and theoretical calculations. The Limit of Detection (LoD) achieved is comparable with standard high resolution spectrometry, but with the capability of analyzing sub-micrometric domains for immunoassays reactions onto a sensing surface.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  5. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

V. Kugel and H. Ji, “Nanopillars for sensing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(9), 6469–6477 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bañuls, M. J.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casquel, R.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holgado, R. Casquel, B. Sánchez, C. Molpeceres, M. Morales, and J. L. Ocaña, “Optical characterization of extremely small volumes of liquid in sub-micro-holes by simultaneous reflectivity, ellipsometry and spectrometry,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13318–13329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fanton, J.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fanton, J. T.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

García-Ballesteros, J. J.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

González-Pedro, V.

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K. B.

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, H. P.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holgado, M.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holgado, R. Casquel, B. Sánchez, C. Molpeceres, M. Morales, and J. L. Ocaña, “Optical characterization of extremely small volumes of liquid in sub-micro-holes by simultaneous reflectivity, ellipsometry and spectrometry,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13318–13329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, H.

V. Kugel and H. Ji, “Nanopillars for sensing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(9), 6469–6477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelso, S. M.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kong, S. K.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kugel, V.

V. Kugel and H. Ji, “Nanopillars for sensing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(9), 6469–6477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laguna, M. F.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lechuga, L. M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leng, J. M.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Romero, D.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maquieira, A.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molpeceres, C.

Morales, M.

Ocaña, J. L.

Opsal, J.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ortega, F. J.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puchades, R.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritz, K.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rosencwaig, A.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sánchez, B.

Sanza, F. J.

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senko, M.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willenborg, D. L.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. Y.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and J. T. Fanton, “Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(11), 1301 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, R. Casquel, M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, D. López-Romero, J. J. García-Ballesteros, M. J. Bañuls, A. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5403–5407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holgado, C. A. Barrios, F. J. Ortega, F. J. Sanza, R. Casquel, M. F. Laguna, M. J. Bañuls, D. López-Romero, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Label-free biosensing by means of periodic lattices of high aspect ratio SU-8 nano-pillars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2553–2558 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig, “Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(11), 7035–7040 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. Kugel and H. Ji, “Nanopillars for sensing,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(9), 6469–6477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal, “Characterization of titanium nitride (TiN) films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 308–313 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, (Springer Verlag, 1984).

R. Casquel, Biosensors Based on Vertically Interrogated Optofluidic Sensing Cells. Doctoral thesis (Universidad Politénica de Madrid, 2012).

GUM, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Available online: http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html

http://www.n-eos.com/

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the optical setup. In this technique a polarized laser beam is focused (with the converging lens L6) on the BICELL and in the way back it passes through the same converging lens (L6), a quarter-wave plate (l/4), another converging lens (L4), an analyzer (P2), and then the intensity of the beam intensity is captured on a high resolution CCD. The data registered on the CCD is then displayed on a computer screen, showing an interference pattern (Fig. 3). The system have also a color camera used for positioning the laser beam in the BICELL within the x-y stage.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Working principle of the optical technique. The angle of incidence of each of the light rays depends on the distance to the centre of the beam. The laser is lineraly polarized, and the CCD is collecting s or p polarization states depending of the orientation of the pixels. The size of the beam is in the order of 600 nm, due to the high numerical aperture objective.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Image from the high resolution CCD camera: a) interferometer of 1240 nm of SU-8 over Silicon; b) interferometer of 1770 nm of SU-8 over Silicon. Black represents zero reflectivity, and the intensity of red scale varies from zero to maximum reflectivity.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflectivity for s polarization, for acid catalyst and 100 μg/mL of antiBSA (saturation).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Biorecognition curves for antiBSA. a) s-polarization; b) p-polarization. After immobilizing BSA, we incubated increasing concentrations of antiBSA: 2.5, 3.5, 5, 3.5, 10 and 100 μg/mL. For each concentration, we repeated the measurements seven times, we filtered the spectra using a Savitzky- Golay filter, and obtained the position of the minimum around 47 ° for the seven measurements. The graph shows the average of the seven positions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Theoretical reflectivity as a function of angle of incidence. a) Reflectivity for s and p polarizations for several thicknesses of biofilm. b) Shift as a function of thickness of biofilm for s and p polarizations.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 FTIR spectra for reference and antiBSA saturation. After BSA inmobilization, we incubated increasing concentrations of antiBSA. We repeated the measurements seven times using the Vertex interferometer, and after filtering we obtained the average position of the minimum around 723 nm and its standard deviation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Theoretical calculations for reflectometry as a function of wavelength. a) spectra for different thicknesses of biofilm. b) shift as a function of thickness of biof

Equations (3)

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d0.82 λ NA
LoD= U position m detection
u position 2 = s 2 n + R 2 12

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