Abstract

We report on the fabrication and the characterization of a wedged multilayer Laue lens for x-ray nanofocusing. The lens was fabricated using a sputtering deposition technique, in which a specially designed mask was employed to introduce a thickness gradient in the lateral direction of the multilayer. X-ray characterization shows an efficiency of 27% and a focus size of 26 nm at 14.6 keV, in a good agreement with theoretical calculations. These results indicate that the desired wedging is achieved in the fabricated structure. We anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Niese, P. Krueger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22, 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Doring, A. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined KirkpatrickBaez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21, 19311–19323 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S.-R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray zone plates: recent progress,” Materials 5, 1752–1773 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. U. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.,  81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

Ballabriga, R.

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartels, M.

Biancarosa, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

Boas, L.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

Bouet, N.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

S. Niese, P. Krueger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22, 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-S.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, W.

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y.

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y. S.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conley, R.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doring, F.

Eberl, C.

Eom, D.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feraca, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

Gofron, K.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grevent, C.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harder, R.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hoffmann, S.

Holt, M.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hwu, Y.

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray zone plates: recent progress,” Materials 5, 1752–1773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ichimaru, S.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Jahedi, N.

Kagoshima, Y.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Kalbfleisch, S.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. C.

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keskinbora, K.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kewish, C.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

Knez, M.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Konishi, S.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Krebs, H.

Krebs, H. U.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. U. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.,  81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krueger, P.

Kruger, P.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Kubec, A.

S. Niese, P. Krueger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22, 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Lauer, K.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legnini, D.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Leson, A.

Li, L.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Liese, T.

Lima, E.

Lin, C.-H.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Llopart, X.

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lombardo, J.

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macrander, A.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Margaritondo, G.

S.-R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray zone plates: recent progress,” Materials 5, 1752–1773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maser, J.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mayer, M.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzel, M.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Nazaretski, E.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Niese, S.

S. Niese, P. Krueger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22, 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Noh, D.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohchi, T.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Osterhoff, M.

Patommel, J.

S. Niese, P. Krueger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22, 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Pesic, Z.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radisch, V.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. U. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.,  81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rau, C.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, I.

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Robisch, A.

Rose, V.

Rosenbaum, L.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

Ruhlandt, A.

Salditt, T.

Schlenkrich, F.

Schroer, C.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Schroer, C. G.

Schutz, G.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seiboth, F.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

Seo, O.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shu, D.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snigirev, A.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Snigireva, I.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stephenson, G.

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stephenson, G. B.

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Szeghalmi, A.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takano, H.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Takenaka, H.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tlustos, L.

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, T.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

Vogt, S.

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wagner, U.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weigand, M.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winarski, R.

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wong, W.

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-R.

S.-R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray zone plates: recent progress,” Materials 5, 1752–1773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yun, W.

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zschech, E.

Zurbuchen, M. A.

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Koyama, S. Ichimaru, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Optical properties of MoSi2/Si multilayer Laue lens as nanometer x-ray focusing device,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 117003 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kang, H. Yan, R. Winarski, M. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, M. A. Zurbuchen, and G. B. Stephenson, “Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113519 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Kruger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 052019 (2013).

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2)

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grevent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schutz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

S.-R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray zone plates: recent progress,” Materials 5, 1752–1773 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

H. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Noh, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multilayer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A (2)

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 582, 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time,” energy and/or photon counting measurements, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 581, 485–494 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. Stephenson, and H. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x-rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Biancarosa, Q. Shen, L. Boas, J. Feraca, and L. Rosenbaum, “The NSLS-II multilayer Laue lens deposition system,” Proc. SPIE 7448, 74480U (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pesic, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. U. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.,  81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, C. Liu, J. Qian, C. Kewish, A. Macrander, H. Yan, H. Kang, J. Maser, and G. Stephenson, “Wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 053104 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. S. Chu, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Kang, J. Lombardo, and W. Chiu, “Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of multilayer Laue lenses; (2) circular type,” in 10th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, I. McNulty, C. Eyberger, and B. Lai, eds., 100–103, (Amer. Inst. Physics, Melville, 2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic drawing of the wedged MLL. Zones are titled to the incident beam progressively as they are positioned toward the outer region of the lens. The extension of the layers would intersect with the optical axis at 2 fs . At the energy where the real focal length, f, equals to the structural focal length, fs , optimum performance is achieved.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A schematic of the deposition setup. A profiled mask cut that produces a film gradient is inserted in-between the target and the substrate. Six sets of substrates labeled “b” and “c” would have identical wedging gradients, although in the reverse orientation. After the deposition, a small section (labeled “d”) is cut from any of these wedged multilayer stacks to produce a wedged MLL. In order to simplify growth rate calibration with x-ray reflectivity measurements, short uniform thickness sections in the mask were cut to produce a uniform film thickness on substrates labeled “a”. (b) A photograph of the fabricated mask used for four pairs of targets. It has a rectangular shape. The non-rectangular appearance is due to the viewing angle. (c) The cross-section of the multilayers after a completed growth. The wedged MLL was sectioned at a location, 6.4 mm away from the corner. (d) SEM image of the side view of the sectioned wedged MLL with 31 μm aperture size. The X-ray incident direction is perpendicular to the paper surface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) An SEM image showing 3 marker layers (pointed by black arrows). (b) A plot of the marker layer positions versus n , where n is the zone index. A linear fit is also shown. The slope corresponds to λ f . The inset shows the residual error from the linear fit, presented as the phase error associated with the zone placement error across the lens aperture. For an ideal lens it should be zero.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Far-field diffraction images taken at angles favoring the negative first (top) and positive first (bottom) orders. Vertical lines indicate the extent of each diffraction order on the far-field detector. Intensity is plotted on a linear scale. (b) Stacked line profiles obtained from (a) at different rocking angles. Intensity is plotted on a logarithmic scale. The white arrow shows the angular position at which optimum efficiency for focusing is achieved. The difference between the negative first and positive first orders is evident.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The simulated efficiencies of the negative first (focusing) and positive first (diverging) orders as a function of the rocking angle for MLLs with flat and wedged zones at 14.6 keV. Both lenses are perfect and have the same parameters shown in the following except the wedging: a thickness of 9.5 μm, an aperture size of 31 μm and an outmost zone width of 2.8 nm. For the wedged MLL, we assume that f = fs = 3.2 mm at 14.6 keV. (b) The simulated efficiencies of the negative first (focusing) and positive first (diverging) orders compared with the experimental data. The measured zone placement error in Fig. 3(b) is incorporated into the theoretical calculation. (c) Intensity variation of the negative first order inside the perfect wedged MLL. In this case, the intensity is only a function of thickness, independent of the zone position. (d) A similar plot for a wedged MLL incorporating zone placement error is shown in Fig. 3(b). The diffraction intensity varies with both the thickness and the zone position. Particular at a large thickness, the intensity diminishes quickly in the outermost region where the zone width is the smallest. This change is due to the presence of the zone placement error.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Isometric intensity plot of the X-ray wavefront at the focal plane. (b) A typical frame of collected diffraction data in logarithmic scale. (c) The reconstructed test sample image. (d) Phase retrieval transfer function of the reconstruction. (e) Intensity line profile through the focus. The experimentally determined focus size of 25.6 nm agrees well with simulated focus size of 26.6 nm. (f) Intensity line profile on the logarithmic scale. (g) and (h) are the wavefield intensity variations along the optical axis obtained from reconstruction and theoretical calculation, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmission images on a CCD at three successive rocking angles near the diffraction peak. Each of the three images is separated by 0.02 degrees. The dark band near the middle in each image occurs due to extinction since diffraction diverts the energy from the transmitted beam. Wedging widens the extinction band at the peak diffraction efficiency since a wider portion diffracts at the same rocking angle than would be the case for an MLL with parallel multilayer interfaces. If ideally wedged, the entire 31 μm -wide MLL aperture would show an extinction band. This work used a central 40 μm portion of wedged MLL, where the angular distortion is minimal. The X-ray beam direction is perpendicular to the paper surface.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters for the wedged MLL measured in this experiment.

Equations (4)

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y n 2 = n λ ( f z ) + n 2 λ 2 / 4 ,
y n a ( z ) n λ f , a ( z ) = 1 z / f s ,
a ( z ) 1 z 2 f s .
2 d sin θ = λ , θ y / 2 f s , d λ f / y , f s = f .

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