Abstract

A comparative research on saturable absorption (SA) behavior dependence on wavelength and pulse duration was performed for graphene polymer composites. Free-standing graphene-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films were fabricated by using solution cast method in combination of liquid phase exfoliation. SA responses were observed by using an open-aperture Z-scan technique for 340 fs pulses at 1030 nm and 515 nm from a mode-locked fiber laser, and 6 ns pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The graphene films possess better SA property, i.e., larger SA coefficient and figure of merit (FOM), and lower saturation intensity Is, for ns pulses than that for fs pulses at the similar near infrared (NIR) wavelength. For fs pulses, the films show better SA response at 1030 nm than that at 515 nm. By employing slow and fast SA modelling, the excited state and ground state absorption cross sections were estimated to be ~10−17 cm2, and the ratio was ~0.6 at NIR for both fs and ns pulses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

B. Fu, Y. Hua, and X. Xiao, Member, IEEEH. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 1100705 (2014).

B. Fu, Y. Hua, and X. Xiao, Member, IEEEH. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 1100705 (2014).

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan and J. S. Wei, “False nonlinear effect in z-scan measurement based on semiconductor laser devices: theory and experiments,” Photon. Res. 2(2), 51–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Z. R. R. Rosdin, F. Ahmad, N. M. Ali, S. W. Harun, and H. Arof, “Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with low pumping threshold using graphene saturable absorber,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(9), 091404 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly polarized 1180-nm Raman fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, R. Gvishi, and M. Nathan, “Saturable absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hybrid-glass composites,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 825–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Tanahashi, “Development of fabrication methods of filler/polymer nanocomposites: With focus on simple melt-compounding-based approach without surface modification of nanofillers,” Materials 3(3), 1593–1619 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, A. Nag, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Graphene analogue BCN: Femtosecond nonlinear optical susceptibility and hot carrier dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 499(1–3), 152–157 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. H. C. Camargo, K. G. Satyanarayana, and F. Wypych, “Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new application opportunities,” Mater. Res. 12(1), 1–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, J. Tang, H. Zhang, C. Qian, Y. Feng, and J. Liu, “Functionalized few-walled carbon nanotubes for mechanical reinforcement of polymeric composites,” ACS Nano 3(5), 1057–1062 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, M. T. Ng, and J. J. Vittal, “AgInSe2 nanorods: A semiconducting material for saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033106 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kamel, “Nanotechnology and its applications in lignocellulosic composites, a mini review,” Express Polym. Lett. 1(9), 546–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, “Chasing ‘slow light’,” Phys. Usp. 49(10), 1067–1075 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, C. Sun, and J.-K. Wang, “Nonlinear pulse-shaping phenomena of semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231106 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Zidan, “Structural properties of CrF3- and MnCl2-filled poly (vinyl alcohol) films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 88(5), 1115–1120 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Xiang, M. D. Guina, A. M. Vainionpää, J. Lyytikäinen, S. Suomalainen, M. J. Saarinen, O. Okhotnikov, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors in the 1.55 µm wavelength range for pulse generation in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 369–374 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

I. D. Jung, F. X. Fartner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 137–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

A. J. D. Maria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(7), 174–176 (1966).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, F.

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aleksandrov, E. B.

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, “Chasing ‘slow light’,” Phys. Usp. 49(10), 1067–1075 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ali, N. M.

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arof, H.

Au, J. A.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedford, R. G.

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergin, S. D.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernazzani, P.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blau, P.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blighe, F. M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, J.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boland, J. J.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burshtein, Z.

M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, R. Gvishi, and M. Nathan, “Saturable absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hybrid-glass composites,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 825–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Byrne, M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camargo, P. H. C.

P. H. C. Camargo, K. G. Satyanarayana, and F. Wypych, “Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new application opportunities,” Mater. Res. 12(1), 1–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, W. J.

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, L.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cocke, D. L.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

De, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duesberg, G.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, D. C.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, M. T. Ng, and J. J. Vittal, “AgInSe2 nanorods: A semiconducting material for saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly polarized 1180-nm Raman fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

Fartner, F. X.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Fartner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 137–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly polarized 1180-nm Raman fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

Y. Hou, J. Tang, H. Zhang, C. Qian, Y. Feng, and J. Liu, “Functionalized few-walled carbon nanotubes for mechanical reinforcement of polymeric composites,” ACS Nano 3(5), 1057–1062 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[Crossref]

Fu, B.

B. Fu, Y. Hua, and X. Xiao, Member, IEEEH. Zhu, Z. Sun, and C. Yang, “Broadband graphene saturable absorber for pulsed fiber lasers at 1, 1.5, and 2 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 1100705 (2014).

Furuki, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giordani, S.

S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gomes, J. A.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, L. P.

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goodhue, R.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guha, S.

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guina, M. D.

N. Xiang, M. D. Guina, A. M. Vainionpää, J. Lyytikäinen, S. Suomalainen, M. J. Saarinen, O. Okhotnikov, T. Sajavaara, and J. Keinonen, “Broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors in the 1.55 µm wavelength range for pulse generation in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 369–374 (2002).
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Gun’Ko, Y. K.

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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
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S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
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S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
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I. D. Jung, F. X. Fartner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 137–150 (1997).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
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I. D. Jung, F. X. Fartner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 137–150 (1997).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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S. Kumar, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, A. Nag, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Graphene analogue BCN: Femtosecond nonlinear optical susceptibility and hot carrier dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 499(1–3), 152–157 (2010).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

Wang, H. Y.

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
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Wang, J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly polarized 1180-nm Raman fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly polarized 1180-nm Raman fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
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L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
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J. Wang, C. Sun, and J.-K. Wang, “Nonlinear pulse-shaping phenomena of semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231106 (2006).
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Wang, J.-K.

J. Wang, C. Sun, and J.-K. Wang, “Nonlinear pulse-shaping phenomena of semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231106 (2006).
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Wang, K.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
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S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
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Wei, S.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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S. D. Bergin, V. Nicolosi, P. V. Streich, S. Giordani, Z. Y. Sun, A. H. Windle, P. Ryan, N. P. Niraj, Z. T. Wang, L. Carpenter, W. J. Blau, J. Boland, J. P. Hamilton, and J. N. Coleman, “Towards solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in common solvents,” Adv. Mater. 20(10), 1876–1881 (2008).
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Xing, G.

Xu, W. C.

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
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Yang, C.

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Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly polarized 1180-nm Raman fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
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L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

L. Zhang, J. Fan, J. Wang, J. Hu, M. Lotya, G. Wang, R. Li, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Graphene incorporated Q-switching of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 888–892 (2012).

Zhang, X.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Y. Hou, J. Tang, H. Zhang, C. Qian, Y. Feng, and J. Liu, “Functionalized few-walled carbon nanotubes for mechanical reinforcement of polymeric composites,” ACS Nano 3(5), 1057–1062 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Process flow of G-PVA composite film fabrication. (a) Photographs of graphene SC dispersions being proceed at different stages by liquid phase exfoliation technique. (b) Photographs of the G-PVA composite films being proceed at different stages by solution-cast method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectra of a G-PVA composite film and a pure PVA film. Insets: photographs of the G-PVA film and pure PVA. (b) Raman spectrum of the G-PVA film. (c) Bright-field TEM image of a graphene nanoflake. (d) AFM image of the G-PVA composite film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), (c) and (e): Z-scan curves at different incident pulse energies of the film with lower T0. The solid lines are the fitting results. (b), (d) and (f): Normalized transmission as a function of input laser intensity.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 αNL and Is as functions of I0 for the two G-PVA films for fs pulses at 1030 nm ((a) and (b)), fs pulses at 515 nm ((c) and (d)), and ns pulses at 1064 nm ((e) and (f)).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Nonlinear transmission of the G-PVA film with low T0 as a function of the input laser intensity for fs pulses at 1030 nm and 515 nm, and ns pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm. The solid lines are fitting results based on the fast and slow saturable absorber models. Inset is a schematic diagram of graphene level and a three-level system used for the modeling.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Linear and NLO parameters of the G-PVA films.

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Table 2 The physical parameters used for the fitting based on a fast saturable absorber and a slow saturable absorber models.

Equations (3)

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T( L )= T 0 + T FN ( L ) T 0 1 T 0 ( T max T 0 ),
T FN = 1 σ gs E( 0 ) ln{ 1+ T 0 [ e σ gs E( 0 ) 1 ] },
I( L ) I( 0 ) ( I( L )+S I( 0 )+S ) D = T 0 ,

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