Abstract

We investigate the timing phase noise of fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively, integrated in a linear cavity fiber laser in the reflecting operation. Due to the shorter decay time of the GO and CNTs, weaker slow saturable absorber effects are expected and mode-locked lasers based on these two saturable absorbers exhibit low excess timing phase noise coupled from the laser intensity noise. Compared with a reference laser mode locked by semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), GO based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 7 dB at 1 kHz and a timing jitter reduction of 45% experimentally whereas CNTs based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 3 dB and a timing jitter reduction of 29%. This finding suggests that saturable absorbers with short decay time have the potential for achieving mode locking operation with low timing phase noise, which is important for applications including frequency metrology, high-precision optical sampling, clock distribution and optical sensing.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (9)

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–7 (2014).

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Luo, Y. Q. Ge, D. Y. Tang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, and L. M. Zhao, “Mechanism of spectrum moving, narrowing, broadening, and wavelength switching of dissipative solitons in all-normal-dispersion Yb-fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, S. Bae, K. Kieu, and J. Kim, “Sub-femtosecond timing jitter, all-fiber, CNT-mode-locked Er-laser at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26533–26541 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S.-C. Wen, and W.-C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (13)

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Xu, and P. Wang, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched 2μm thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5319–5322 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. Wu, P. P. Shum, S. Aditya, C. Ouyang, J. H. Wong, H. Q. Lam, and K. E. K. Lee, “Noise conversion from pump to the passively mode-locked fiber lasers at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1901–1903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, U. Demirbas, A. Benedick, A. Sennaroglu, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond timing jitter pulse trains from semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23422–23435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

J. Zhou, S. Fu, F. Luan, J. H. Wong, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and K. E. K. Lee, “Tunable multi-tap bandpass microwave photonic filter using a windowed Fabry-Perot filter-based multi-wavelength tunable laser,” J. Lightw. Tech. 29, 3381–3386 (2011).

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z.-B. Liu, X. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (11)

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, D. R. C. S. Lim, V. K. H. Wong, K. E. K. Lee, J. Chen, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Timing-jitter reduction of passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber by optimization of cavity loss,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1085–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, S. Fu, C. Ouyang, H. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, E. D. Obraztsova, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear coupling of relative intensity noise from pump to a fiber ring laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16663–16670 (2010).
[PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Byun, M. Y. Sander, A. Motamedi, H. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact, stable 1 GHz femtosecond Er-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5577–5582 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic‐layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Manzoni, A. Gambetta, E. Menna, M. Meneghetti, G. Lanzani, and G. Cerullo, “Intersubband exciton relaxation dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 207401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

F. X. Kurtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers-what's the difference?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Aditya, S.

K. Wu, P. P. Shum, S. Aditya, C. Ouyang, J. H. Wong, H. Q. Lam, and K. E. K. Lee, “Noise conversion from pump to the passively mode-locked fiber lasers at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1901–1903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, S. Fu, F. Luan, J. H. Wong, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and K. E. K. Lee, “Tunable multi-tap bandpass microwave photonic filter using a windowed Fabry-Perot filter-based multi-wavelength tunable laser,” J. Lightw. Tech. 29, 3381–3386 (2011).

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Angelow, G.

Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic‐layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedick, A.

Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byun, H.

Cai, Z.

Cerullo, G.

C. Manzoni, A. Gambetta, E. Menna, M. Meneghetti, G. Lanzani, and G. Cerullo, “Intersubband exciton relaxation dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 207401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, X.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–7 (2014).

Chernov, A.

A. Tausenev, E. Obraztsova, A. Lobach, A. Chernov, V. Konov, P. Kryukov, A. Konyashchenko, and E. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chernov, A. I.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Debnath, P.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Demirbas, U.

der Au, J. A.

F. X. Kurtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers-what's the difference?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E.

A. Tausenev, E. Obraztsova, A. Lobach, A. Chernov, V. Konov, P. Kryukov, A. Konyashchenko, and E. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

Du, J.

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

J. Zhou, S. Fu, F. Luan, J. H. Wong, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and K. E. K. Lee, “Tunable multi-tap bandpass microwave photonic filter using a windowed Fabry-Perot filter-based multi-wavelength tunable laser,” J. Lightw. Tech. 29, 3381–3386 (2011).

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, S. Fu, C. Ouyang, H. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, E. D. Obraztsova, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear coupling of relative intensity noise from pump to a fiber ring laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16663–16670 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

Gambetta, A.

C. Manzoni, A. Gambetta, E. Menna, M. Meneghetti, G. Lanzani, and G. Cerullo, “Intersubband exciton relaxation dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 207401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, C.-X.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, W. L.

Ge, Y.

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y. Q.

J. L. Luo, Y. Q. Ge, D. Y. Tang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, and L. M. Zhao, “Mechanism of spectrum moving, narrowing, broadening, and wavelength switching of dissipative solitons in all-normal-dispersion Yb-fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Godbout, N.

Goh, C. S.

Grodecki, K.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, W.-S.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Holdynski, M.

Hong, B. H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, G.

Huang, H.

Huang, Y.

Inoue, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Jablonski, M.

Jagiello, J.

Jang, S.-Y.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jhon, Y.-M.

Jiang, K.

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, M.

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24(9), 631–633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kurtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers-what's the difference?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K.

Kim, C.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. W.

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kockaert, P.

Kolner, B. H.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Konov, V.

A. Tausenev, E. Obraztsova, A. Lobach, A. Chernov, V. Konov, P. Kryukov, A. Konyashchenko, and E. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Konov, V. I.

Konyashchenko, A.

A. Tausenev, E. Obraztsova, A. Lobach, A. Chernov, V. Konov, P. Kryukov, A. Konyashchenko, and E. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koo, J.

Kozinski, R.

Kryukov, P.

A. Tausenev, E. Obraztsova, A. Lobach, A. Chernov, V. Konov, P. Kryukov, A. Konyashchenko, and E. Dianov, “177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kurtner, F. X.

F. X. Kurtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers-what's the difference?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lam, H. Q.

Lanzani, G.

C. Manzoni, A. Gambetta, E. Menna, M. Meneghetti, G. Lanzani, and G. Cerullo, “Intersubband exciton relaxation dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 207401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. W.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. E. K.

Lee, S.

Li, D.

Li, L.

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

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J. L. Luo, Y. Q. Ge, D. Y. Tang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, and L. M. Zhao, “Mechanism of spectrum moving, narrowing, broadening, and wavelength switching of dissipative solitons in all-normal-dispersion Yb-fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
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X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-S.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S. C.

Wen, S.-C.

Weng, J.

Wise, F. W.

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, J. H.

Wong, V. K. H.

Wu, K.

Wu, S.

Wu, Y.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Xu, and P. Wang, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched 2μm thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5319–5322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.-C.

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yan, W.-B.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic‐layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–7 (2014).

Yang, Q.-H.

Yang, Z.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

Yeom, D.-I.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. H.

Yu, J.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–7 (2014).

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

Zdrojek, M.

Zhang, H.

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S.-C. Wen, and W.-C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic‐layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, S.

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. M.

J. L. Luo, Y. Q. Ge, D. Y. Tang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, and L. M. Zhao, “Mechanism of spectrum moving, narrowing, broadening, and wavelength switching of dissipative solitons in all-normal-dispersion Yb-fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-L.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

X. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Meng, G. Liang, H. Sun, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband saturable absorption of graphene oxide thin film and its application in pulsed fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–7 (2014).

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, L.

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

J. L. Luo, Y. Q. Ge, D. Y. Tang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, and L. M. Zhao, “Mechanism of spectrum moving, narrowing, broadening, and wavelength switching of dissipative solitons in all-normal-dispersion Yb-fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X.-W.

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, S. Fu, F. Luan, J. H. Wong, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and K. E. K. Lee, “Tunable multi-tap bandpass microwave photonic filter using a windowed Fabry-Perot filter-based multi-wavelength tunable laser,” J. Lightw. Tech. 29, 3381–3386 (2011).

Zhou, M.

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic‐layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Express (2)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
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M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
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Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
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H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
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A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
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X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chen, N. Raravikar, L. Schadler, P. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electr. (1)

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IEEE Photon. J. (2)

X.-H. Li, Y.-G. Wang, Y.-S. Wang, X.-H. Hu, W. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, J. Yu, C.-X. Gao, W. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Wavelength-switchable and wavelength-tunable all-normal-dispersion mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on single-walled carbon nanotube wall paper absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(1), 234–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Luo, Y. Q. Ge, D. Y. Tang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, and L. M. Zhao, “Mechanism of spectrum moving, narrowing, broadening, and wavelength switching of dissipative solitons in all-normal-dispersion Yb-fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Wang, S. Wang, J. Luo, Y. Ge, L. Li, D. Tang, D. Shen, S. Zhang, F. W. Wise, and L. Zhao, “Vector Soliton Generation in a Tm Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(8), 769–772 (2014).
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K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010).
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J. Lightw. Tech. (1)

J. Zhou, S. Fu, F. Luan, J. H. Wong, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and K. E. K. Lee, “Tunable multi-tap bandpass microwave photonic filter using a windowed Fabry-Perot filter-based multi-wavelength tunable laser,” J. Lightw. Tech. 29, 3381–3386 (2011).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser and Photonics Reviews (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid‐state lasers,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “All-normal-dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber ring laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075108 (2013).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Liu, J. Xu, and P. Wang, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched 2μm thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5319–5322 (2012).
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Opt. Express (14)

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
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Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
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K. Wu, J. H. Wong, P. Shum, S. Fu, C. Ouyang, H. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. I. Chernov, E. D. Obraztsova, and J. Chen, “Nonlinear coupling of relative intensity noise from pump to a fiber ring laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16663–16670 (2010).
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M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
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M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

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Other (1)

BATOP, “SAM-1550-9-2ps datasheet” (2011), retrieved http://www.batop.de/products/saturable-absorber/saturable-absorber-mirror/saturable-absorber-mirror-1550nm.html .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Preparation of GO-PVA and CNT-PVA thin film SAs (a) GO and CNT dispersed solution; (b) polystyrene cells filled with solutions; (c) thin film stripped off the cell wall after heating and evaporation process; (d) small piece of thin film SA on a fiber end.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Modulation depth of (a) GO-PVA thin film, (b) CNT-PVA thin film and (c) SESAM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Laser design with a linear cavity; (b) Placement of GO-PVA and CNT-PVA thin film saturable absorbers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Noise coupling from the pump to the laser and inside the laser. SSA: slow saturable absorber; RIN: relative intensity noise; PN: phase noise.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Noise spectra of the GO laser. Inset: Pump RIN spectrum; (b) Measured noise conversion ratios and calculated excess phase noise conversion ∆rPN due to the SSA effect.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pulse temporal shift induced by the slow saturable absorber effect with 1% modulation depth
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Decay time of (a) CNT and (b) GO
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Noise spectra of the CNT laser. Inset: Pump RIN spectrum; (b) Measured noise conversion ratios and calculated excess phase noise conversion ∆rPN due to the SSA effect.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Noise spectra of the SESAM laser. Inset: Pump RIN spectrum; (b) Measured noise conversion ratios and calculated excess phase noise conversion ∆rPN due to the SSA effect

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical properties of the mode-locked lasers

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Table 2 Noise properties of the three lasers

Equations (9)

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S cal = S PumpRIN r
Δ S PN (f)= ( f R 2 f Δt s s ) 2 S RIN (f)
Δ r PN (f)= ( f R 2 f Δt s s ) 2 r RIN (f)
q t = q m q τ A q P(t) E A
decay=exp( t τ 1 )+0.361exp( t τ 2 )
decay=exp( t τ 1 )+exp( t1.22ps τ 2 )
Δ r PN (f)= r RIN (f)20lgf+26.5(dB)
Δ r PN (f)= r RIN (f)20lgf+31.2(dB)
Δ r PN (f)= r RIN (f)20lgf+33.1(dB)

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