Abstract

We apply a rigorous dipole model to analyze the light outcoupling and angular performance of quantum dot light emitting diode (QLED). To illustrate the design principles, we use a red QLED as an example and compare its performance with an organic light emitting diode (OLED). By combining a high refractive index glass substrate with macroextractors, our simulation results indicate that the light outcoupling efficiency is doubled from ~40% to ~80%. After analyzing the light emission spectra and angular radiation pattern of the device, we confirm that QLED has a much weaker color shift than OLED.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Enhancing extraction efficiency of quantum dot light-emitting diodes by surface engineering

Qin Zhang, Xiaobing Gu, Zihan Chen, Jie Jiang, Zhimin Zhang, Jufu Wei, Feng Li, Xiao Jin, Yinglin Song, and Qinghua Li
Opt. Express 25(15) 17683-17694 (2017)

Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern

Haowen Liang, Ruidong Zhu, Yajie Dong, Shin-Tson Wu, Juntao Li, Jiahui Wang, and Jianying Zhou
Opt. Express 23(10) 12910-12922 (2015)

Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes

Simone Hofmann, Michael Thomschke, Björn Lüssem, and Karl Leo
Opt. Express 19(S6) A1250-A1264 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Geffroy, P. le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Castan, H.-M. Kim, and J. Jang, “All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2508–2515 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Display Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. F. Van Derlofske, J. M. Hillis, A. Lathrop, J. Wheatley, J. Thielen, and G. Benoit, “Illuminating the value of larger color gamuts for quantum dot displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 237–240 (2014).
  17. M. Sessolo and H. J. Bolink, “Hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1829–1845 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. A. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(4), 962–971 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 725–741 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 721–730 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(106), A1250–A1264 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  31. S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Display Technol. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).
  36. J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. T. Tsutsui, “Progress in electroluminescent devices using molecular thin films,” MRS Bull. 22(06), 39–45 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. E. Braslavsky, “Glossary of terms used in photochemistry, 3rd edition (IUPAC Recommendations 2006),” Pure Appl. Chem. 79(3), 293–465 (2007).
  39. O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  40. G. Horst, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7R), 4125–4137 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  41. K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, “Exceptionally efficient organic light emitting devices using high refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7562–7570 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  44. J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  45. P. Seong-Sik, S. Insung, C. Eunyoung, P. Seungwon, and K. Euisoo, “Color shift reduction of liquid crystal displays by controlling light distribution using a micro-Lens array film,” J. Display Technol. 8(11), 643–649 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  46. R. Lu, Q. Hong, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Color shift reduction of a multi-domain IPS-LCD using RGB-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6243–6252 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. C.-H. Oh, H.-J. Shin, W.-J. Nam, B.-C. Ahn, S.-Y. Cha, and S.-D. Yeo, “Technological progress and commercialization of OLED TV,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 239–242 (2013).
  48. C.-W. Han, K.-M. Kim, S.-J. Bae, H.-S. Choi, J.-M. Lee, T.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Tak, S.-Y. Cha, and B.-C. Ahn, “55-inch FHD OLED TV employing new tandem WOLEDs,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 279–281 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (6)

A. Castan, H.-M. Kim, and J. Jang, “All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2508–2515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Display Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 721–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Seong-Sik, S. Insung, C. Eunyoung, P. Seungwon, and K. Euisoo, “Color shift reduction of liquid crystal displays by controlling light distribution using a micro-Lens array film,” J. Display Technol. 8(11), 643–649 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(106), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Sessolo and H. J. Bolink, “Hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1829–1845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, “Exceptionally efficient organic light emitting devices using high refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7562–7570 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Horst, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7R), 4125–4137 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Display Technol. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Lu, Q. Hong, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Color shift reduction of a multi-domain IPS-LCD using RGB-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6243–6252 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Geffroy, P. le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 725–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. A. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(4), 962–971 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Tsutsui, “Progress in electroluminescent devices using molecular thin films,” MRS Bull. 22(06), 39–45 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andrew, T. L.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bae, W. K.

W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 721–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldo, M. A.

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bardecker, J. A.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 725–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bohn, C. D.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bolink, H. J.

M. Sessolo and H. J. Bolink, “Hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1829–1845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bose, E.

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Breen, C.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brovelli, S.

W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 721–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Caruge, J.-M.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castan, A.

A. Castan, H.-M. Kim, and J. Jang, “All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2508–2515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Display Technol. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-T.

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-C.

Chen, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Display Technol. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, O.

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, H.-C.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiu, T.-L.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, K.-S.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, T.-Y.

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. L.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chuang, C.-N.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, S.

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coe-Sullivan, S.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dang, C.

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dev, K.

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, I. K.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Döhler, G. H.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Endo, A.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Euisoo, K.

Eunyoung, C.

Forrest, S. R.

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Frischeisen, J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Z.

Geffroy, B.

B. Geffroy, P. le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gianfrancesco, A. G.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ginger, D. S.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Govorov, A. O.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guzelturk, B.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, C.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, T. C.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y.-H.

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(106), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holloway, P. H.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, Q.

Hong, Y.

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Horst, G.

G. Horst, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7R), 4125–4137 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, C.-C.

Hsiao, C.-H.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Insung, S.

Jang, E.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

A. Castan, H.-M. Kim, and J. Jang, “All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2508–2515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, J.

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Joo, W.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kazlas, P. T.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kiang, Y.-W.

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-M.

A. Castan, H.-M. Kim, and J. Jang, “All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2508–2515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-P.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. M.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-J.

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-H.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-W.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Klimov, V. I.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 721–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ko, S.-H.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kovalenko, M. V.

D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krummacher, B. C.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-C.

Kwon, S.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lan, Y.-H.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

le Roy, P.

B. Geffroy, P. le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E. K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Display Technol. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-S.

D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P.-Y.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(106), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leung, M. K.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-F.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.-W.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.-R.

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M. S.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-H.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

Lu, Y.-J.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(106), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martinez, P. L. H.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashford, B. S.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maurice, A.

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mayr, C.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

McDaniel, H.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mladenovski, S.

Mohd Yusoff, A. R.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Munro, A. M.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mutlugun, E.

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neyts, K.

Neyts, K. A.

Niu, Y.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Padilha, L. A.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavicic, D.

Pietryga, J. M.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poitras, D.

Popovic, Z.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prat, C.

B. Geffroy, P. le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Py, C.

Qian, L.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reinke, N. A.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reiss, P.

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robel, I.

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothe, C.

Schmidt, T. D.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scholz, B. J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seol, Y.-G.

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seong-Sik, P.

Sessolo, M.

M. Sessolo and H. J. Bolink, “Hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1829–1845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seungwon, P.

Shevchenko, E. V.

D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirasaki, Y.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shoustikov, A.

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Song, K. W.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steckel, J.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steckel, J. S.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, M.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. D.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supran, G. J.

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ta, V. D.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talin, A. A.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(106), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tien, K.-C.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, “Progress in electroluminescent devices using molecular thin films,” MRS Bull. 22(06), 39–45 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wasey, J. A. E.

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 725–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wei, H.

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.-K.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Werner, A.

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

Xiong, Q.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

Xue, J.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, C.-J.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.-H.

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, D.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, H. P.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhitenev, N. B.

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Castan, H.-M. Kim, and J. Jang, “All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(4), 2508–2515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

X. Yang, E. Mutlugun, C. Dang, K. Dev, Y. Gao, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Highly flexible, electrically driven, top-emitting, quantum dot light-emitting stickers,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8224–8231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Sessolo and H. J. Bolink, “Hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1829–1845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

H. P. Yoon, Y. Lee, C. D. Bohn, S.-H. Ko, A. G. Gianfrancesco, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. A. Talin, and N. B. Zhitenev, “High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots,” AIP Adv. 3(6), 062112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Windisch, P. Heremans, A. Knobloch, P. Kiesel, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, and G. Borghs, “Light-emitting diodes with 31% external quantum efficiency by outcoupling of lateral waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2256–2258 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Chung, J.-H. Lee, J. Jeong, J.-J. Kim, and Y. Hong, “Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 253302 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Bulović, A. Shoustikov, M. A. Baldo, E. Bose, V. G. Kozlov, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Bright, saturated, red-to-yellow organic light-emitting devices based on polarization-induced spectral shifts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 287(3–4), 455–460 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

D. V. Talapin, J.-S. Lee, M. V. Kovalenko, and E. V. Shevchenko, “Prospects of colloidal nanocrystals for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 389–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (3)

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

H.-M. Kim, A. R. Mohd Yusoff, T.-W. Kim, Y.-G. Seol, H.-P. Kim, and J. Jang, “Semi-transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes with an inverted structure,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(12), 2259–2265 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 725–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Ho, J.-R. Lin, and H. Y. Lin, “Device-dependent angular luminance enhancement and optical responses of organic light-emitting devices with a microlens-array film,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(1), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Horst, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A7R), 4125–4137 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

B. Guzelturk, P. L. H. Martinez, Q. Zhang, Q. Xiong, H. Sun, X. W. Sun, A. O. Govorov, and H. V. Demir, “Excitonics of semiconductor quantum dots and wires for lighting and displays,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 73–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (4)

O. Chen, H. Wei, A. Maurice, M. Bawendi, and P. Reiss, “Pure colors from core–shell quantum dots,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 696–702 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tsutsui, “Progress in electroluminescent devices using molecular thin films,” MRS Bull. 22(06), 39–45 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, S. Brovelli, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectroscopic insights into the performance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 721–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. J. Supran, Y. Shirasaki, K. W. Song, J.-M. Caruge, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, T. L. Andrew, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “QLEDs for displays and solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 38(09), 703–711 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I. K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K. Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

W. K. Bae, Y.-S. Park, J. Lim, D. Lee, L. A. Padilha, H. McDaniel, I. Robel, C. Lee, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Controlling the influence of Auger recombination on the performance of quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat Commun 4, 2661 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

B. S. Mashford, M. Stevenson, Z. Popovic, C. Hamilton, Z. Zhou, C. Breen, J. Steckel, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, S. Coe-Sullivan, and P. T. Kazlas, “High-efficiency quantum-dot light-emitting devices with enhanced charge injection,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 407–412 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Org. Electron. (3)

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Org. Lett. (1)

M. K. Leung, W.-H. Yang, C.-N. Chuang, J.-H. Lee, C.-F. Lin, M.-K. Wei, and Y.-H. Liu, “1,3,4-Oxadiazole containing silanes as novel hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Lett. 14(19), 4986–4989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polym. Int. (1)

B. Geffroy, P. le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. F. Van Derlofske, J. M. Hillis, A. Lathrop, J. Wheatley, J. Thielen, and G. Benoit, “Illuminating the value of larger color gamuts for quantum dot displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 237–240 (2014).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

S. E. Braslavsky, “Glossary of terms used in photochemistry, 3rd edition (IUPAC Recommendations 2006),” Pure Appl. Chem. 79(3), 293–465 (2007).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

C.-H. Oh, H.-J. Shin, W.-J. Nam, B.-C. Ahn, S.-Y. Cha, and S.-D. Yeo, “Technological progress and commercialization of OLED TV,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 239–242 (2013).

C.-W. Han, K.-M. Kim, S.-J. Bae, H.-S. Choi, J.-M. Lee, T.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Tak, S.-Y. Cha, and B.-C. Ahn, “55-inch FHD OLED TV employing new tandem WOLEDs,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 279–281 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Structure of the proposed QLED stack and (b) PL spectra of the QDs taken from [19].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The device structure of the OLED stack and (b) the PL spectra of NPB:Ir(MDQ)2(acac) taken from [32].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic drawing of the simplified three layer structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated power dissipation spectra of (a) QLED and (b) BOLED.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Amount of power coupled to different optical channels for (a) QLED device and (b) BOLED device.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated full power dissipation spectra of (a) QLED and (b) BOLED.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Changing the proportions of different optical channels by tuning the BPhen:Cs layer thickness for the OLED structure, and (b) Changing the proportions of different optical channels by tuning the NPB layer thickness for the QLED structure.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Changing the fraction of power of different optical channels for the QLED structure by varying the ZnO layer thickness.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Amount of power coupled to different optical channels for the QLED device with a high refractive index (n = 1.8) substrate.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 How the refractive index of the substrate affects different optical channel power proportion.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Full power dissipation spectra of the QLED with different substrate refractive indices: a) nsub = 1.8 b) nsub = 2.0 c) nsub = 2.2 d) nsub = 2.4.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Emission spectra of the (a) QLED stack (b) BOLED stack.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Calculated color shift of the proposed red QLED and the red OLED.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Simulated angular radiation pattern of the OLED and the QLED structures.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fractions of power coupled to different modes for the QLED stack with substrates having different refractive indices.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(λ,θ)= 1+ R T +2 R T cos( ϕ T + 4π n e acos( θ ) λ ) (1 R T R B ) 2 +4 R T R B sin 2 ( Δϕ 2 ) T B I 0 (λ).
Δϕ= 4π n e dcos( θ ) λ ϕ B ϕ T .
EQE=ηIQE=ηγ η S/T q eff ,
EQE=ηIQE=ηγ q eff .
q= k r k r + k nr ,
P=1q+qF=1q+q 0 K( k x )d k x .
q eff q = k r * k r * + k nr = F k r F k r + k nr = F qF+1q .
K= 1 3 K TMv + 2 3 ( K TMh + K TEh ),
K TMv = 3 2 Re[ k x 3 (1+ r TMv b e 2i k z b )(1+ r TMv t e 2i k z a ) k e k z 3 (1 r TMv b r TMv t e 2i k z (a+b) ) ], K TMh = 3 4 Re[ k x k z (1 r TMv b e 2i k z b )(1 r TMv t e 2i k z a ) k e 3 (1 r TMv b r TMv t e 2i k z (a+b) ) ], K TEh = 3 4 Re[ k x (1+ r TEv b e 2i k z b )(1+ r TEv t e 2i k z a ) k e k z (1 r TEv b r TEv t e 2i k z (a+b) ) ].
ε e f f = i d i / i ( d i / ε i ) , n e f f = Re ( ε e f f ) .
K TEh = 3 8 k x k e k z [ | 1+ r TEv b e 2i k z b | 2 | 1 r TEv b r TEv t e 2i k z (a+b) | 2 ( T TEv t + A TEv t )+ | 1+ r TEv t e 2i k z t | 2 | 1 r TEv b r TEv t e 2i k z (a+b) | 2 ( T TEv b + A TEv b )] = 3 8 k x k e k z [ | 1+ r TEv b e 2i k z b | 2 | 1 r TEv b r TEv t e 2i k z (a+b) | 2 ( T TEv t + T TEv b )+ | 1+ r TEv t e 2i k z t | 2 | 1 r TEv b r TEv t e 2i k z (a+b) | 2 ( A TEv t + A TEv b )] = K TEh T + K TEh A .
P=1q+qF=1q+q λ 1 λ 2 S(λ) 0 K( k x )d k x dλ .
q eff η= P dir / P tot .

Metrics