Abstract

We proposed wideband antireflective circular polarizer for realizing a true black state in all viewing directions in organic light-emitting-diode displays (OLEDs). Present commercialized wideband circular polarizer consisted of a half wave and a quarter wave plates having the refractive index parameter (Nz) of 1.5 in both films exhibits light leakage in the oblique viewing directions, deteriorating image quality of a black state. We evaluated Nzs of both films and proposed a new wideband antireflective circular polarizer with a perfect dark state in all viewing directions with Nz = 0.5 in both plates, which will greatly improve image quality of OLEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).
  4. Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. C. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design of low-cost polarizer without chromatic fringe pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Shi and C. W. Tang, “Doped organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1665–1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Asano, M.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Barry, S.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Boroson, M.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Brown, J. J.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-H.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-C.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fujimura, Y.

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STNLCDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers22, 739–742 (1991).

Furuki, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grushin, V. V.

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hack, M.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hashizume, M.

N. Koma, M. Hashizume, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Sato, “Development of photochromic circular polarizer for OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 1268–1271 (2012).

Hatwar, T. K.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Herron, N.

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hirano, T.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishibashi, T.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Ito, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Iwase, Y.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Kahen, K. B.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Kanno, H.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Khalfin, V.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. C.

B. C. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design of low-cost polarizer without chromatic fringe pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

Koma, N.

N. Koma, M. Hashizume, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Sato, “Development of photochromic circular polarizer for OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 1268–1271 (2012).

Komiya, N.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Kozlov, V. G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwong, R. C.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

LeCloux, D.

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-D.

B. C. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design of low-cost polarizer without chromatic fringe pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101103 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Yoon, G.-D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

B. C. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design of low-cost polarizer without chromatic fringe pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

B. C. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design of low-cost polarizer without chromatic fringe pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Madathil, J.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. G.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mori, T.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Muto, M.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nagatsuka, T.

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STNLCDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers22, 739–742 (1991).

Otani, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rajeswaran, G.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Raychaudhuri, P.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rothman, M.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sasaoka, T.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Sato, Y.

N. Koma, M. Hashizume, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Sato, “Development of photochromic circular polarizer for OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 1268–1271 (2012).

Sekiya, M.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Shi, J.

J. Shi and C. W. Tang, “Doped organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1665–1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shimomura, T.

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STNLCDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers22, 739–742 (1991).

Suga, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tamura, S.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Tang, C. W.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Shi and C. W. Tang, “Doped organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1665–1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, A.

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, “Characteristics and application of new wide-band retardation films,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 566–569 (2001).
[Crossref]

Urabe, T.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

Weaver, M. S.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, J.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Yamada, T.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Yamamoto, M.

N. Koma, M. Hashizume, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Sato, “Development of photochromic circular polarizer for OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 1268–1271 (2012).

Yang, C.-J.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yatabe, T.

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, “Characteristics and application of new wide-band retardation films,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 566–569 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y.-H.

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, R.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Yoneda, K.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Yoon, T.-H.

Yoshida, S.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshimi, H.

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STNLCDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers22, 739–742 (1991).

Yumoto, A.

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

Zhou, T. X.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

C.-J. Yang, C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Shi and C. W. Tang, “Doped organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1665–1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, N. Herron, V. V. Grushin, D. LeCloux, and V. Petrov, “Highly efficient electroluminescent materials base on fluorinated organometallic iridium compounds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(4), 449–451 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. C. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design of low-cost polarizer without chromatic fringe pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (11)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Furuki, S. Yoshida, T. Otani, M. Muto, Y. Suga, and Y. Ito, “A new achromatic quarter-wave film using liquid-crystal materials for anti-reflection of OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers45, 381–384 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Fujimura, T. Nagatsuka, H. Yoshimi, and T. Shimomura, “Optical properties of retardation films for STNLCDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers22, 739–742 (1991).

T. Sasaoka, M. Sekiya, A. Yumoto, J. Yamada, T. Hirano, Y. Iwase, T. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, T. Mori, M. Asano, S. Tamura, and T. Urabe, “A 13.0-inch AM-OLED display with top emitting structure and adaptive current mode programmed pixel circuit (TAC),” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 384–387 (2001).

K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, K. Suzuki, S. Matsumoto, T. Yamaguchi, K. Yoneda, Y. Hamada, H. Kanno, Y. Nishio, H. Matsuoka, Y. Saito, S. Oima, N. Mori, G. Rajeswaran, S. Mizukoshi, and T. K. Hatwar, “Development of 2.2-inch full color AM-OLED display for mobile applications,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, 2002), pp. 235–238.

G. Rajeswaran, M. Itoh, M. Boroson, S. Barry, T. K. Hatwar, K. B. Kahen, K. Yoneda, R. Yokoyama, T. Yamada, N. Komiya, H. Kanno, and H. Takahashi, “Active matrix low temperature poly-si TFT/OLED full color displays: development status,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 947–977 (2000).

Q. Li, Self-Organized Organic Semiconductors: From Materials to Device Application (John Wiley & Sons, 2011).

Q. Li, Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, “Wide-band retardation films with reverse wavelength dispersion,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, 2000), pp.407–410.

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, “Characteristics and application of new wide-band retardation films,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers32, 566–569 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Koma, M. Hashizume, M. Yamamoto, and Y. Sato, “Development of photochromic circular polarizer for OLEDs,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers43, 1268–1271 (2012).

M. Okamoto, K. Minoura, and S. Mitsui, “Optical design of the LC layer on reflective LCDs with a single polarizer,” in Proceeding of the 6th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, 1999), 49–52.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Device configuration and (b) iso-luminance contour in dark state of the wide view circular polarizers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 States of polarization inside a wideband antireflective film with Nz = 1.5 according to red, green, blue wavelengths on Poincaré sphere under (a) normal direction and (b) oblique direction (azimuthal angle = 60° and polar angle = 70°).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated iso-luminance contour in a dark state according to Nz of the wideband antireflective film.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) States of polarization inside a wideband antireflective film with Nz = 0.5 according to red, green, blue wavelengths on Poincaré sphere under oblique direction (azimuthal angle = 60° and polar angle = 70°) and (b) calculated leakage of light along horizontal direction up to ± 80° of a polar angle according to Nz.

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