Abstract

An effective method for enhancing the light outcoupling efficiency from top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TEOLEDs) with a nano-sized stochastic texture surface (NSTS) is suggested. The broadly distributed pitch and the randomly sized of islands in the NSTS enable the photons that are otherwise trapped to be emitted over the broad emission wavelength range. The NSTS-embedded TEOLEDs have wide angular-dependent emission characteristics and an enhanced external quantum efficiency (EQE). Theoretical and full-wave optical calculations were performed to understand the mechanisms of the efficiency enhancement. Optimized TEOLEDs achieved a 32% EQE enhancement compared with the reference devices without the NSTS.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

2010 (1)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, “Full-wave simulation of enhanced outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices with an embedded low-index grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163302 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photon. 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

X. Zhu, J. Sun, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “High-performance top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A), 4054–4058 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

H. Chen, J. Lee, C. Shiau, C. Yang, and Y. Kiang, “Electromagnetic modeling of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2450–2457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ai, N.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aichholz, M.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

Bi, Y.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bocksrocker, T.

Brown, J. J.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

Bulovic, V.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-H.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-C.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-Y.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eschenbaum, C.

Feng, J.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fincher, C. R.

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

Flattery, D. K.

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photon. 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, “Full-wave simulation of enhanced outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices with an embedded low-index grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Frischeisen, J.

Fuchs, C.

Gather, M. C.

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerken, M.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, G.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hack, M.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hauss, J.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, S.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, C.-C.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, A.

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiang, Y.

Kiang, Y.-W.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koh, T.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.-S.

X. Zhu, J. Sun, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “High-performance top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A), 4054–4058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kwong, R. C.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

LeCloux, D. L.

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

Lee, J.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Lee, C. Shiau, C. Yang, and Y. Kiang, “Electromagnetic modeling of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2450–2457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lemmer, U.

T. Bocksrocker, F. Maier-Flaig, C. Eschenbaum, and U. Lemmer, “Efficient waveguide mode extraction in white organic light emitting diodes using ITO-anodes with integrated MgF₂-columns,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6170–6174 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, B.

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lussem, B.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier-Flaig, F.

Mehta, D.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Regan, M. B.

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

Peng, J.

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reusch, T. C.

Richard, J. S.

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

Riedel, B.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothman, M.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scholz, B. J.

Scholz, R.

Schwab, T.

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Setz, D. S.

Shen, Y.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shiau, C.

Slootsky, M.

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, “Full-wave simulation of enhanced outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices with an embedded low-index grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

X. Zhu, J. Sun, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “High-performance top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A), 4054–4058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photon. 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

Tien, K.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weaver, M. S.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wedge, S.

Wong, M.

X. Zhu, J. Sun, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “High-performance top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A), 4054–4058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Lee, C. Shiau, C. Yang, and Y. Kiang, “Electromagnetic modeling of organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2450–2457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation simulations of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures,” J. Disp. Tech. 2(2), 130–137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

X. Zhu, J. Sun, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “High-performance top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A), 4054–4058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yun, C.

J. Lee, H. Cho, T. Koh, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, C. Yun, T. Schwab, S. Reineke, B. Lussem, J. Lee, S. Yoo, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Straight-forward control of the degree of micro-cavity effects in organic light-emitting diodes based on a thin striped metal layer,” Org. Electron. 14(10), 2444–2450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zakhidov, A.

Zhao, L.

Y. Xiong, W. Xu, C. Li, B. Liang, L. Zhao, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Utilizing white OLED for full color reproduction in flat panel display,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 533–538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T. X.

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, J. Sun, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “High-performance top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7A), 4054–4058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of PEDOT:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Slootsky and S. R. Forrest, “Full-wave simulation of enhanced outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices with an embedded low-index grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163302 (2009).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Bi, J. Feng, Y. Li, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053304 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, S. Liu, K. Tien, M. Hsu, H. Chang, C. Chang, C. Yang, and C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Inf. Disp. (1)

D. K. Flattery, C. R. Fincher, D. L. LeCloux, M. B. O’Regan, and J. S. Richard, “Clearing the road to mass production of OLED television,” Inf. Disp. 27, 8–13 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Tech. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The procedure used to fabricate the NSTS. The Ag thin film was first deposited on the glass substrate followed by the formation of stochastic Ag islands using a thermal dewetting process.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A schematic illustration of the NSTS-based OLEDs (b) The three-dimensional atomic force microscope (AFM) image of the NSTS on the glass substrate with the dimensions 5.0 × 5.0 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The current densityvoltageluminance characteristics and the angular dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) intensity (b) The EQE as a function of luminance (c) The normalized EL spectra of a device without the NSTS as a function of observation angle (d) The normalized EL spectra of a device with the NSTS as a function of observation angle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The normalized intensity distribution (b) the outcoupling angle of the emitted light (c) emission wavelength, and (d) outcoupling efficiency and enhancement factor as a function of the grating pitch.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The normalized electric field distributions of (a) the reference and (b) the NSTS-based devices.

Equations (3)

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k = k 0 sin θ = k w g ± m G ,
θ = ( λ , Λ ) = arc sin [ Re ( n e f f ) ± m λ / Λ ] ,
E =( Π )+ k 2 n 2 Π H =jω ε 0 n 2 × Π ,

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