Abstract

In this paper, we have investigated the effect of rolled-up nanotubes on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based LEDs using two-dimensional finite element method simulation. The light extraction involves two successive steps, including the coupling from the light source to the tube and the subsequent emission from the tube to the air. Significantly enhanced light extraction efficiency is observed for both TE and TM waves by optimizing the nanotube geometry and dimension as well as the separation between the nanotube and light source. We have further shown that densely packed nanotube arrays can be integrated with GaN-based LEDs to achieve unequivocal improvement of light extraction efficiency over a large surface area. With recent advances in rolled-up micro- and nanotubes, it is expected that this study can offer a potentially flexible, low cost approach to enhance the light extraction of various LED devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20(S5), A765–A776 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. C. Lee, C. H. Ni, and C. Y. Chen, “Enhancing light extraction mechanisms of GaN-based light-emitting diodes through the integration of imprinting microstructures, patterned sapphire substrates, and surface roughness,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A489–A498 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Prospective important semiconducting nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(41), 7592–7605 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Li, “Strain induced semiconductor nanotubes: from formation process to device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 193001 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. S. Chun and X. Li, “Controlled assembly and dispersion of strain-induced InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 493–495 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Hosoda and T. Shigaki, “Degeneracy breaking of optical resonance modes in rolled-up spiral microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181107 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

F. Krumeich, M. Wark, L. Ren, H. J. Muhr, and R. Nesper, “Electron microscopy characterization of silicon dioxide nanotubes,” ZAAC 630, 1054–1058 (2004).

D. A. Kirkpatrick, “Is solid state the future of lighting?” Proc. SPIE 5187, 10–21 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Ponce and D. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

E. Ejder, “Refractive index of GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi a 6(2), 445–448 (1971).
[Crossref]

Aida, T.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arafin, S.

M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bando, Y.

Y. Sun, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Prospective important semiconducting nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(41), 7592–7605 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bastek, B.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertram, F.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bianucci, P.

M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bour, D.

F. Ponce and D. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brinkley, S. E.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chehovskiy, A.

V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Y. Sun, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Prospective important semiconducting nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(41), 7592–7605 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chien, W. T.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, C. O.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

Cho, J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Choi, W. J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
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H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chun, I. S.

I. S. Chun and X. Li, “Controlled assembly and dispersion of strain-induced InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 493–495 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chung, S. H.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
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D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coric, E.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
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Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
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M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
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S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
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Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
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M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
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Y. Sun, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Prospective important semiconducting nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(41), 7592–7605 (2009).
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M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
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Han, X.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayashi, T.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
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Heitmann, D.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
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Heyn, C.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
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M. Hosoda and T. Shigaki, “Degeneracy breaking of optical resonance modes in rolled-up spiral microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181107 (2007).
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H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. T.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Y. Sun, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Prospective important semiconducting nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(41), 7592–7605 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Im, J. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

Jeon, H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kao, C.

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keraly, C. L.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
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Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kipp, T.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kiravittaya, S.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. A. Kirkpatrick, “Is solid state the future of lighting?” Proc. SPIE 5187, 10–21 (2004).
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Krost, A.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krumeich, F.

F. Krumeich, M. Wark, L. Ren, H. J. Muhr, and R. Nesper, “Electron microscopy characterization of silicon dioxide nanotubes,” ZAAC 630, 1054–1058 (2004).

Kubota, K.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, Y. C.

Lee, Y. H.

Li, F.

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

I. S. Chun and X. Li, “Controlled assembly and dispersion of strain-induced InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 493–495 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Li, “Strain induced semiconductor nanotubes: from formation process to device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 193001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. F.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mei, Y.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mi, Z.

M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moreno, I.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muhr, H. J.

F. Krumeich, M. Wark, L. Ren, H. J. Muhr, and R. Nesper, “Electron microscopy characterization of silicon dioxide nanotubes,” ZAAC 630, 1054–1058 (2004).

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, S.

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
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Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nesper, R.

F. Krumeich, M. Wark, L. Ren, H. J. Muhr, and R. Nesper, “Electron microscopy characterization of silicon dioxide nanotubes,” ZAAC 630, 1054–1058 (2004).

Nguyen, H. P. T.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, C. H.

Nielsch, K.

M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nunoshita, M.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohta, J.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Q.-H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ponce, F.

F. Ponce and D. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
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Poole, P.

M. H. T. Dastjerdi, M. Djavid, S. Arafin, X. Liu, P. Bianucci, Z. Mi, and P. Poole, “Optically pumped rolled-up InAs/InGaAsP quantum dash lasers at room temperature,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(9), 094007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poole, P. J.

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Preobrazhenskii, V.

V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

Prinz, V. Y.

V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

Putyato, M.

V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rehberg, H.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reindl, T.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, L.

F. Krumeich, M. Wark, L. Ren, H. J. Muhr, and R. Nesper, “Electron microscopy characterization of silicon dioxide nanotubes,” ZAAC 630, 1054–1058 (2004).

Roh, Y. G.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakano, Y.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sauer, M.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schilling, J.

M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, O. G.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schultz, C.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seleznev, V.

V. Y. Prinz, V. Seleznev, A. Gutakovsky, A. Chehovskiy, V. Preobrazhenskii, M. Putyato, and T. Gavrilova, “Free-standing and overgrown InGaAs/GaAs nanotubes, nanohelices and their arrays,” Physica E 6(1-4), 828–831 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shigaki, T.

M. Hosoda and T. Shigaki, “Degeneracy breaking of optical resonance modes in rolled-up spiral microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sonoda, J.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steinhart, M.

M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stemmann, A.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoffel, M.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strelow, C.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
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Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Prospective important semiconducting nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(41), 7592–7605 (2009).
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Thurmer, D. J.

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tokuda, T.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vaccaro, P.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vicknesh, S.

S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vorob’ev, A.

A. Vorob’ev, P. Vaccaro, K. Kubota, T. Aida, T. Tokuda, T. Hayashi, Y. Sakano, J. Ohta, and M. Nunoshita, “SiGe/Si microtubes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(17), L67–L69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wark, M.

F. Krumeich, M. Wark, L. Ren, H. J. Muhr, and R. Nesper, “Electron microscopy characterization of silicon dioxide nanotubes,” ZAAC 630, 1054–1058 (2004).

Wehrspohn, R. B.

M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Welsch, H.

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Light confinement and mode splitting in rolled-up semiconductor microtube bottle resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155329 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, C. Schultz, H. Rehberg, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Three dimensionally confined optical modes in quantum-well microtube ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wen, K. S.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wendorff, J. H.

M. Steinhart, J. H. Wendorff, A. Greiner, R. B. Wehrspohn, K. Nielsch, J. Schilling, J. Choi, and U. Gösele, “Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates,” Science 296(5575), 1997 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuu, D. S.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yen, K. W.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, J. Chu, C. Kao, T. Hseuh, T. Lu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, P.

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Mei, D. J. Thurmer, C. Deneke, S. Kiravittaya, Y. F. Chen, A. Dadgar, F. Bertram, B. Bastek, A. Krost, J. Christen, T. Reindl, M. Stoffel, E. Coric, and O. G. Schmidt, “Fabrication, self-assembly, and properties of ultrathin AlN/GaN porous crystalline nanomembranes: tubes, spirals, and curved sheets,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1663–1668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip shaping for light extraction enhancement of bulk C-plane light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Bianucci, S. Mukherjee, M. H. T. Dastjerdi, P. J. Poole, and Z. Mi, “Self-organized InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot tube lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Hosoda and T. Shigaki, “Degeneracy breaking of optical resonance modes in rolled-up spiral microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181107 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. Kao, J. Chu, H. Kuo, S. Wang, and C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the integrated GaN LED and nanotube structure. The nanotube shown here has 1.5 turns and θ is 45°. C1 and C2 denote the integration paths for calculating the light extraction efficiency.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison between the light extraction efficiency of a GaN thin film LED (a) without and (b) with a nanotube for light emission at 526 nm. The nanotube used here has 1.25 turns and the wall thickness is 20 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Light extraction efficiency of (a) TE waves and (b) TM waves vs. the number of turns (N) and rotation angle θ of the nanotube. The wall thickness is 20 nm. The p-GaN layer thickness is d 1 = 120 nm .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of the light extraction efficiency of TE waves and TM waves on the wall thickness. The p-GaN layer thickness is d 1 = 120 nm . The nanotube parameters are N = 1.25 , θ = 0 ° .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of the light extraction efficiency of TE waves on (a) the depth of the active region and (b) the horizontal position of the point source. Nanotube parameters used are N = 1.6 , θ = 75 ° , t = 20 nm . In (a), the light source is positioned right under the nanotube.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic illustration of the integrated nanotube arrays with an LED structure. (b) Comparison between the light extraction efficiency of TE waves for a single nanotube and that for multiple nanotubes for L = 1220 nm. Nanotube parameters include N = 1.6 , θ = 75 ° , t = 20 n m .

Equations (1)

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η= C 1 S n dl C 2 S n dl

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