Abstract

We examined the light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on microcavity designed OLEDs. The results of FDTD simulations and experiments showed that the pillar shaped nano-structure was more effective than the concave micro-structure for light diffusing of microcavity OLEDs. The sharp luminance distribution of the microcavity OLED was changed to near Lambertian luminance distribution by the nano-structure, and light diffusing effects increased with the height of the nano-structure. Furthermore, the nano-structure has advantages including light extraction of the substrate mode, reproducibility of manufacturing process, and minimizing pixel blur problems in an OLED display panel. The nano-structure is a promising candidate for a light diffuser, resolving the viewing angle problems in microcavity OLEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. J.-W. Lee, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Controlling the optical efficiency of the transparent organic light-emitting diode using capping layers,” J. Inf. Disp. 14(2), 57–60 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  20. F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(4B), 2787–2789 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. J. Lim, S. S. Oh, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, I. T. Kim, S. H. Han, H. Takezoe, E. H. Choi, G. S. Cho, Y. H. Seo, S. O. Kang, and B. Park, “Enhanced out-coupling factor of microcavity organic light-emitting devices with irregular microlens array,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6564–6571 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. C. H. Choy and C. Y. Ho, “Improving the viewing angle properties of microcavity OLEDs by using dispersive gratings,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13288–13294 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Chen and H. S. Kwok, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting substrates,” Opt. Express 18(1), 37–42 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y.-F. Liu, J. Feng, Y.-G. Bi, J.-F. Song, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Omnidirectional emission from top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with microstructured cavity,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 124–126 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Wu and J. Wang, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting device with weak viewing angle-dependence,” J. Lumin. 131(11), 2419–2421 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. J. Cox, A. J. DeWeerd, and J. Linden, “An experiment to measure Mie and Rayleigh total scattering cross sections,” Am. J. Phys. 70(6), 620–625 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. C. Pont and J. J. Koenderink, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of specular surfaces with hemispherical pits,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(12), 2456–2466 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Lee, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J.-I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Lee, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Controlling the optical efficiency of the transparent organic light-emitting diode using capping layers,” J. Inf. Disp. 14(2), 57–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, M. N. Kamalasanan, and D. S. Mehta, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes using nanostructured indium tin oxide,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 575–577 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Liu, J. Feng, Y.-G. Bi, J.-F. Song, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Omnidirectional emission from top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with microstructured cavity,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 124–126 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Z. Wu and J. Wang, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting device with weak viewing angle-dependence,” J. Lumin. 131(11), 2419–2421 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and H. S. Kwok, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting substrates,” Opt. Express 18(1), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Improved hole-injection contact for top-emitting polymeric diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 173505 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. C. H. Choy and C. Y. Ho, “Improving the viewing angle properties of microcavity OLEDs by using dispersive gratings,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13288–13294 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (4)

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(4B), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. C. Pont and J. J. Koenderink, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of specular surfaces with hemispherical pits,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(12), 2456–2466 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Cox, A. J. DeWeerd, and J. Linden, “An experiment to measure Mie and Rayleigh total scattering cross sections,” Am. J. Phys. 70(6), 620–625 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2633–2635 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2486–2488 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2032–2034 (1993).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

Barnes, W. L.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Becker, H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bi, Y.-G.

Burns, S.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.-D.

Chen, S.

Cho, D.-H.

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, G. S.

Cho, H.

Cho, N. S.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. H.

Choi, E. H.

Choy, W. C. H.

Chu, H. Y.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Lee, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Controlling the optical efficiency of the transparent organic light-emitting diode using capping layers,” J. Inf. Disp. 14(2), 57–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cox, A. J.

A. J. Cox, A. J. DeWeerd, and J. Linden, “An experiment to measure Mie and Rayleigh total scattering cross sections,” Am. J. Phys. 70(6), 620–625 (2002).
[Crossref]

DeWeerd, A. J.

A. J. Cox, A. J. DeWeerd, and J. Linden, “An experiment to measure Mie and Rayleigh total scattering cross sections,” Am. J. Phys. 70(6), 620–625 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2486–2488 (1994).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

Han, J.-H.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S. H.

Hashiya, A.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirasawa, T.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. Y.

Hofmann, S.

Hsu, Y. J.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(4B), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Improved hole-injection contact for top-emitting polymeric diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 173505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huh, J. W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inada, Y.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.-H.

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Joo, C. W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

Juang, F. S.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(4B), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

Kang, S. O.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, I. T.

Kim, J.-J.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

Kim, K.-H.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-Y.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

Koenderink, J. J.

Koh, T.-W.

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

Kwock, E. W.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2486–2488 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

Laih, L. H.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(4B), 2787–2789 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Lee, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Controlling the optical efficiency of the transparent organic light-emitting diode using capping layers,” J. Inf. Disp. 14(2), 57–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J.-I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J.-I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-I.

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Lee, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Controlling the optical efficiency of the transparent organic light-emitting diode using capping layers,” J. Inf. Disp. 14(2), 57–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, C. Yun, S. Hofmann, J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, J.-I. Lee, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, and S. Yoo, “Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28040–28047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-W.

J.-W. Lee, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Controlling the optical efficiency of the transparent organic light-emitting diode using capping layers,” J. Inf. Disp. 14(2), 57–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

Li, J. H.

J. H. Li, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Improved hole-injection contact for top-emitting polymeric diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 173505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

Lin, C. J.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, “Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(4B), 2787–2789 (2002).
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A. J. Cox, A. J. DeWeerd, and J. Linden, “An experiment to measure Mie and Rayleigh total scattering cross sections,” Am. J. Phys. 70(6), 620–625 (2002).
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Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-F.

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsuzaki, J.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

Mehta, S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, T.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2486–2488 (1994).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.-H.

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, Y.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishiwaki, S.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noda, K.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2633–2635 (1996).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oh, M.-C.

Oh, S. S.

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

Park, S. K.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pont, S. C.

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(19), 2486–2488 (1994).
[Crossref]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2032–2034 (1993).
[Crossref]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, Y. H.

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J.-I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J. 34(5), 690–695 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diodes using chemically etched glass substrates,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3447–3450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-F.

Srivastava, R.

Strurm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[Crossref]

Su, I.-L.

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
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Sun, H.-B.

Suzuki, M.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taga, Y.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2633–2635 (1996).
[Crossref]

Takada, N.

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2032–2034 (1993).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lim, S. S. Oh, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, I. T. Kim, S. H. Han, H. Takezoe, E. H. Choi, G. S. Cho, Y. H. Seo, S. O. Kang, and B. Park, “Enhanced out-coupling factor of microcavity organic light-emitting devices with irregular microlens array,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6564–6571 (2006).
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N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 556 (1997).
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Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2633–2635 (1996).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photon. 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2032–2034 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wakabayashi, S.

Y. Inada, S. Nishiwaki, J. Matsuzaki, T. Hirasawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Hashiya, S. Wakabayashi, and M. Suzuki, “Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 063301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the microcavity OLED with RNS or MCS used in this study.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of the surface of the RNS (a), cross-section of RNS 200 (b), RNS 350 (c), and RNS 500 (d).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Luminance distribution curves of the reference microcavity OLED, OLED with RNS 200, RNS 350, and RNS 500.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized emission spectra of the reference microcavity OLED (a), OLED with RNS 200 (b), RNS 350 (c), and RNS 500 (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of MCS 18 (a) and MCS 42 (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Luminance distribution curves of the reference microcavity OLED, OLED with MCS 18 and MCS 42.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized emission spectra of OLED with MCS 18 (a) and MCS 42 (b).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic diagrams of the model of FDTD simulation for the microcavity OLED; (a) is for OLED with flat glass, (b) for the MCS 10 μm, and (c) for the RNS 500 nm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Normalized power distribution curves depending on viewing angle calculated by FDTD simulations for the OLED with MCS (a) and RNS (b).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Ray tracing results of the flat glass for 1° (a) and 45° (b) of radiation angle of incident rays.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Ray tracing results of the deep pit array for 1° (a) and 45° (b) of radiation angle of incident rays.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Ray tracing results of the shallow pit array for 1° (a) and 45° (b) of radiation angle of incident rays.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Properties of Microcavity OLEDs with RNS and MCS

Equations (1)

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σ s = 2 π 5 3 d 6 λ 4 ( n 2 1 n 2 +2 ) 2

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