Abstract

In this study, the design and fabrication schemes of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with periodic via-holes etching and Bragg mirror processes are presented. Compared to typical front-side illuminated solar cells, the improvements of open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 1.88 to 1.94 V and short-circuit current density (Jsc) from 0.84 to 1.02 mA/cm2 are observed. Most significantly, the back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells exhibit an extremely high fill factor up to 85.5%, leading to a conversion efficiency of 1.69% from 0.66% of typical front-side illuminated solar cells under air mass 1.5 global illuminations. Moreover, the effects of bottom Bragg mirrors on the photovoltaic characteristics of back-side illuminated solar cells are studied by an advanced simulation program. The results show that the Jsc could further be improved with a factor of 10% from the original back-side illuminated solar cell by the structure optimization of bottom Bragg mirrors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  3. S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
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  4. C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
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2013 (4)

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

D. J. Seo, J. P. Shim, S. B. Choi, T. H. Seo, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Efficiency improvement in InGaN-based solar cells by indium tin oxide nano dots covered with ITO films,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A991–A996 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Y. T. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2205–2207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Solar energy harvesting scheme using syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

I. Gorczyca, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 83(15), 153301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. F. Brown, J. W. Ager, W. Walukiewicz, and J. Wu, “Finite element simulations of compositionally graded InGaN solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 478–483 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Tsai, G. S. Liu, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Substrate-free large gap InGaN solar cells with bottom reflector,” Solid-State Electron. 54(5), 541–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: New properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(23), 9085–9090 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2543 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ager, J. W.

G. F. Brown, J. W. Ager, W. Walukiewicz, and J. Wu, “Finite element simulations of compositionally graded InGaN solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 478–483 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alderighi, D.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Al-Heji, A. A.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bae, S. Y.

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

Bernardini, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

Botchkarev, A.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2543 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

Bremner, S. P.

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, G. F.

G. F. Brown, J. W. Ager, W. Walukiewicz, and J. Wu, “Finite element simulations of compositionally graded InGaN solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 478–483 (2010).
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C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. K.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. C.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J. Y.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Y. T. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2205–2207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, K. J.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. A.

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Y. T. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2205–2207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. M.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. C.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. C.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. C.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. B.

Christensen, N. E.

I. Gorczyca, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 83(15), 153301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu, M. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chuang, W. K.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Colocci, M.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cruz, S. C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Di Carlo, A.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Edmondson, K. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fallah, H. R.

D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(23), 9085–9090 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, G. C.

C. L. Tsai, G. S. Liu, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Substrate-free large gap InGaN solar cells with bottom reflector,” Solid-State Electron. 54(5), 541–544 (2010).
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Farrell, R. M.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fetzer, C. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fiorentini, V.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
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Friedman, D. J.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

Fu, P. H.

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gorczyca, I.

I. Gorczyca, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 83(15), 153301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hahn, B.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
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Han, H. V.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harima, H.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
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He, J. H.

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Solar energy harvesting scheme using syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. H.

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honsberg, C. B.

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsing, M. K.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, F. W.

Huang, K. C.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hwu, F. S.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, C. H.

Jeon, S. R.

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

Kang, C. F.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Karam, N. H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kiasatpour, A.

D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(23), 9085–9090 (2007).
[Crossref]

King, R. R.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kinsey, G. S.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. K.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Y. T. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2205–2207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y. T.

Kurimoto, E.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lai, F. I.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, K. Y.

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Solar energy harvesting scheme using syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lai, L. H.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lai, L. W.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y. L.

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lang, J. R.

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

D. J. Seo, J. P. Shim, S. B. Choi, T. H. Seo, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Efficiency improvement in InGaN-based solar cells by indium tin oxide nano dots covered with ITO films,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A991–A996 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

Lee, H. C.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

Lee, Y. S.

C. L. Tsai, G. S. Liu, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Substrate-free large gap InGaN solar cells with bottom reflector,” Solid-State Electron. 54(5), 541–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Levy, M. Y.

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. M. S.

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liao, W. Y.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lien, D. H.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. A.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Solar energy harvesting scheme using syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-T.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

Lin, G. J.

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Solar energy harvesting scheme using syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. W.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. C.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. M.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liou, B. T.

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. S.

C. L. Tsai, G. S. Liu, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Substrate-free large gap InGaN solar cells with bottom reflector,” Solid-State Electron. 54(5), 541–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lugli, P.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Martin, G.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2543 (1996).
[Crossref]

Massari, G.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matioli, E.

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, T.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2543 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakao, M.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[Crossref]

Namkoong, G.

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

Neufeld, C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Neufeld, C. J.

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, H.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[Crossref]

Perl, E. E.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ram-Mohan, L. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

Raoufi, D.

D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(23), 9085–9090 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reale, A.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rockett, A.

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2543 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rozatian, A. S. H.

D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(23), 9085–9090 (2007).
[Crossref]

Semond, F.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Seo, D. J.

Seo, T. H.

Sherif, R. A.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sheu, G. J.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. P.

D. J. Seo, J. P. Shim, S. B. Choi, T. H. Seo, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Efficiency improvement in InGaN-based solar cells by indium tin oxide nano dots covered with ITO films,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A991–A996 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

Suski, T.

I. Gorczyca, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 83(15), 153301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Svane, A.

I. Gorczyca, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 83(15), 153301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toledo, N. G.

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. L.

C. L. Tsai, G. S. Liu, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Substrate-free large gap InGaN solar cells with bottom reflector,” Solid-State Electron. 54(5), 541–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. L.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tu, S. J.

Vinattieri, A.

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walukiewicz, W.

G. F. Brown, J. W. Ager, W. Walukiewicz, and J. Wu, “Finite element simulations of compositionally graded InGaN solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 478–483 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

G. F. Brown, J. W. Ager, W. Walukiewicz, and J. Wu, “Finite element simulations of compositionally graded InGaN solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 478–483 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: New properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, P. C.

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. F.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y. H.

Yen, S. H.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoon, H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, C. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, A. A. Al-Heji, X. Chen, R. M. Farrell, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021102 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “High-quality InGaN/GaN heterojunctions and their photovoltaic effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261108 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lang, C. J. Neufeld, C. A. Hurni, S. C. Cruz, E. Matioli, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131115 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, and N. H. Karam, “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183516 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. H. Fu, G. J. Lin, C. H. Ho, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, Y. L. Lai, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN multi-quantum-well solar cells via light-harvesting SiO2 nano-honeycombs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013105 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Observation of positive thermal power coefficient in InGaN/GaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek and Z. M. S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Martin, A. Botchkarev, A. Rockett, and H. Morkoç, “Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2541–2543 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. Raoufi, A. Kiasatpour, H. R. Fallah, and A. S. H. Rozatian, “Surface characterization and microstructure of ITO thin films at different annealing temperatures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(23), 9085–9090 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

G. J. Lin, K. Y. Lai, C. A. Lin, Y. L. Lai, and J. H. He, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells employing antireflective ZnO nanorod arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1104–1106 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, H. W. Lin, J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, F. M. Chen, and Y. H. Chen, “Advantages of InGaN solar cells with p-doped and high-Al-content superlattice AlGaN barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(1), 85–87 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

J. Y. Chang, S. H. Yen, Y. A. Chang, B. T. Liou, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical investigation of high-efficiency InGaN-based multijunction solar cell,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(12), 4140–4145 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN/GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 400–409 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, “When group-III nitrides go infrared: New properties and perspectives,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 011101 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. G. Toledo, D. J. Friedman, R. M. Farrell, E. E. Perl, C.-T. Lin, J. E. Bowers, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Design of integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride tandem photovoltaic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 054503 (2012).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Y. Bae, J. P. Shim, D. S. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. Namkoong, “Improved photovoltaic effects of a vertical-type InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 092301 (2011).

Nanoscale (1)

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

I. Gorczyca, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 83(15), 153301 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “K•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

S. P. Bremner, M. Y. Levy, and C. B. Honsberg, “Analysis of tandem solar cell efficiencies under AM1.5G spectrum using a rapid flux calculation method,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 225–233 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

G. F. Brown, J. W. Ager, W. Walukiewicz, and J. Wu, “Finite element simulations of compositionally graded InGaN solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 478–483 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Ho, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, C. A. Lin, P. C. Yang, I.-M. Chan, K. Y. Lai, and J. H. He, “An efficient light-harvesting scheme using SiO2 nanorods for InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 103, 194–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lee, Y. K. Su, W. K. Chuang, J. C. Lin, K. C. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, and K. J. Chang, “Discussion on electrical characteristics of i-In0.13Ga0.87N p-i-n photovoltaics by using a single/multi-antireflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(7), 1259–1262 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. K. Chang, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, F. I. Lai, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells using CdS quantum dots and distributed Bragg reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 531–536 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

C. L. Tsai, G. S. Liu, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Substrate-free large gap InGaN solar cells with bottom reflector,” Solid-State Electron. 54(5), 541–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, Progress in Photovoltaics: Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 39) (Wiley, 2011).

J. Piprek, Nitride Semiconductor Devices - Principles and Simulation (Wiley, 2007.

APSYS, Crosslight Software Inc, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2012.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic plots of the fabricated InGaN/GaN solar cells with (a) typical front-side illuminated design and (b) back-side illuminated design with periodic via-holes etching and Bragg mirror processes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 J–V characteristics of typical front-side and back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells under (a) air mass 1.5 global illuminations and (b) dark situation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Micrographs of experimentally optical emission images of (a)−(c) typical front-side and (d)−(f) back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with different forward current densities.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Reflectance spectra of the bottom Bragg mirrors and Ni/Ag metal reflector and (b) Measured EQE of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental and simulated J–V characteristics of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with original and optimized Bragg mirrors and Ni/Ag metal reflector under air mass 1.5 global illuminations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Device parameters of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with original and optimized Bragg mirrors and Ni/Ag metal reflector.

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