Abstract

A grating structure was inscribed in a tellurite glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. High diffraction efficiency was obtained due to the large refractive index change, which was caused by the precipitation of Te crystals in the laser modified region. Two-dimensional multicolored arrays were generated by cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM) together with the prefabricated grating structure, which showed much more superior than those induced by beam breakup.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, H. Valtna, D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, and A. Piskarskas, “Highly efficient four-wave parametric amplification in transparent bulk Kerr medium,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11126–11132 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. L. Silva, R. Weigand, and H. M. Crespo, “Octave-spanning spectra and pulse synthesis by nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2489–2491 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Generation of sub-20-fs multicolor laser pulses using cascaded four-wave mixing with chirped incident pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2402–2404 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Zhu, W. Liu, and C. Fang, “Tunable sideband laser from cascaded four-wave mixing in thin glass for ultra-broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061110 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Crespo, J. T. Mendonça, and A. Dos Santos, “Cascaded highly nondegenerate four-wave-mixing phenomenon in transparent isotropic condensed media,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 829–831 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Cascaded four-wave mixing and multicolored arrays generation in a sapphire plate by using two crossing beams of femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22119–22125 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  8. J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Generation of µJ-level multicolored femtosecond laser pulses using cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4984–4990 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Wavelength-tunable, multicolored femtosecond-laser pulse generation in fused-silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1066–1068 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Si, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “Low threshold power density for the generation of frequency up-converted pulses in bismuth glass by two crossing chirped femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12039–12044 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Yan, J. Yue, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Influence of self-diffraction effect on femtosecond pump-probe optical Kerr measurements,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12069–12074 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1126–1128 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. He, J. Du, and T. Kobayashi, “Low-threshold and compact multicolored femtosecond laser generated by using cascaded four-wave mixing in a diamond plate,” Opt. Commun. 290, 132–135 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Liu, W. Tan, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Acquisition of gated spectra from a supercontinuum using ultrafast optical Kerr gate of lead phthalocyanine-doped hybrid glasses,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13486–13491 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Cascaded frou-wave mixing in transparent bulk media,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1114–1123 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Lin, A. Zhang, E. J. Bushong, and J. Toulouse, “Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16716–16721 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Rathgen and H. L. Offerhaus, “Large bandwidth, highly efficient optical gratings through high index materials,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4268–4283 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

L. Zhu, W. Liu, and C. Fang, “Tunable sideband laser from cascaded four-wave mixing in thin glass for ultra-broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. He, J. Du, and T. Kobayashi, “Low-threshold and compact multicolored femtosecond laser generated by using cascaded four-wave mixing in a diamond plate,” Opt. Commun. 290, 132–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Cascaded frou-wave mixing in transparent bulk media,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1114–1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, Z. Guo, W. Ding, and S. Liu, “Analysis on volume grating induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13640–13646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

A. Lin, A. Zhang, E. J. Bushong, and J. Toulouse, “Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16716–16721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lui, T. Kobayashi, and Z. Wang, “Generation of broadband two-dimensional multicolored arrays in a sapphire plate,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9226–9234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rathgen and H. L. Offerhaus, “Large bandwidth, highly efficient optical gratings through high index materials,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4268–4283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Silva, R. Weigand, and H. M. Crespo, “Octave-spanning spectra and pulse synthesis by nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2489–2491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Generation of sub-20-fs multicolor laser pulses using cascaded four-wave mixing with chirped incident pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2402–2404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Generation of µJ-level multicolored femtosecond laser pulses using cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4984–4990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Wavelength-tunable, multicolored femtosecond-laser pulse generation in fused-silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1066–1068 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, H. Valtna, D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, and A. Piskarskas, “Highly efficient four-wave parametric amplification in transparent bulk Kerr medium,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11126–11132 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1983 (1)

N. C. Kothari and T. Kobayashi, “Growth rate and diameter of filaments in self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(3), 160–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, S. J.

Boyd, R. W.

Bushong, E. J.

Champarnaud-Mesjard, J.-C.

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

H. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Si, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “Low threshold power density for the generation of frequency up-converted pulses in bismuth glass by two crossing chirped femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12039–12044 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crespo, H.

Crespo, H. M.

J. L. Silva, R. Weigand, and H. M. Crespo, “Octave-spanning spectra and pulse synthesis by nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2489–2491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

Ding, W.

Dos Santos, A.

Du, J.

J. He, J. Du, and T. Kobayashi, “Low-threshold and compact multicolored femtosecond laser generated by using cascaded four-wave mixing in a diamond plate,” Opt. Commun. 290, 132–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

Faccio, D.

Fang, C.

L. Zhu, W. Liu, and C. Fang, “Tunable sideband laser from cascaded four-wave mixing in thin glass for ultra-broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

Guo, Z.

He, J.

J. He, J. Du, and T. Kobayashi, “Low-threshold and compact multicolored femtosecond laser generated by using cascaded four-wave mixing in a diamond plate,” Opt. Commun. 290, 132–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Hirao, K.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

Ilan, B.

Kobayashi, T.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kothari, N. C.

N. C. Kothari and T. Kobayashi, “Growth rate and diameter of filaments in self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(3), 160–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

Lin, T.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

Liu, W.

L. Zhu, W. Liu, and C. Fang, “Tunable sideband laser from cascaded four-wave mixing in thin glass for ultra-broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lui, J.

Mendonça, J. T.

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Crespo, J. T. Mendonça, and A. Dos Santos, “Cascaded highly nondegenerate four-wave-mixing phenomenon in transparent isotropic condensed media,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 829–831 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merle-Méjean, T.

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mirgorodsky, A. P.

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noguera, O.

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

Piskarskas, A.

Polesana, P.

Rathgen, H.

Si, J.

Silva, J. L.

Smirnov, M. B.

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamošauskas, G.

Tan, W.

Thomas, P.

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Valiulis, G.

Valtna, H.

Wang, X.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Weigand, R.

J. L. Silva, R. Weigand, and H. M. Crespo, “Octave-spanning spectra and pulse synthesis by nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2489–2491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

Yang, Q.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, W.

Yue, J.

Zhang, A.

Zhang, H.

Zhou, K.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, W. Liu, and C. Fang, “Tunable sideband laser from cascaded four-wave mixing in thin glass for ultra-broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Zhu, W. Liu, and C. Fang, “Tunable sideband laser from cascaded four-wave mixing in thin glass for ultra-broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

O. Noguera, T. Merle-Méjean, A. P. Mirgorodsky, M. B. Smirnov, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, “Vibrational and structure properties of glass and crystalline phase of TeO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1), 50–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Cascaded frou-wave mixing in transparent bulk media,” Opt. Commun. 283(6), 1114–1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 oxide glass,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 230–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. He, J. Du, and T. Kobayashi, “Low-threshold and compact multicolored femtosecond laser generated by using cascaded four-wave mixing in a diamond plate,” Opt. Commun. 290, 132–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

H. Liu, W. Tan, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Acquisition of gated spectra from a supercontinuum using ultrafast optical Kerr gate of lead phthalocyanine-doped hybrid glasses,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13486–13491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yan, J. Yue, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Influence of self-diffraction effect on femtosecond pump-probe optical Kerr measurements,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12069–12074 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lui, T. Kobayashi, and Z. Wang, “Generation of broadband two-dimensional multicolored arrays in a sapphire plate,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9226–9234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhou, Z. Guo, W. Ding, and S. Liu, “Analysis on volume grating induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13640–13646 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, H. Valtna, D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, and A. Piskarskas, “Highly efficient four-wave parametric amplification in transparent bulk Kerr medium,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11126–11132 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Cascaded four-wave mixing and multicolored arrays generation in a sapphire plate by using two crossing beams of femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22119–22125 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Liu and T. Kobayashi, “Generation of µJ-level multicolored femtosecond laser pulses using cascaded four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4984–4990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Si, W. Yi, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “Low threshold power density for the generation of frequency up-converted pulses in bismuth glass by two crossing chirped femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12039–12044 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, A. Zhang, E. J. Bushong, and J. Toulouse, “Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16716–16721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rathgen and H. L. Offerhaus, “Large bandwidth, highly efficient optical gratings through high index materials,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4268–4283 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonça, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. C. Kothari and T. Kobayashi, “Growth rate and diameter of filaments in self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(3), 160–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micro-Raman spectra measured at the femtosecond laser irradiated region and unirradiated region, respectively. The inset shows the microscope image of grating structure and diffraction pattern of a He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One- and two-dimensional multicolored patterns generated in Te glass without grating structure. The input power densities of beam_1 and beam_2 were (a) 28.5 × 109 and 15.5 × 109 W/cm2, (b) 55 × 109 and 35 × 109 W/cm2, and (c) 90 × 109 and 70 × 109 W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Diffracted pattern of two input femtosecond laser beams. The input power densities of beam_1 and beam_2 were 10 × 109 and 8 × 109 W/cm2, respectively. Regular two-dimensional multicolored arrays generated in Te glass with grating structure. The input power densities of beam_1 and beam_2 were (b) 55 × 109 and 35 × 109 W/cm2, and (c) 90 × 109 and 70 × 109 W/cm2, respectively. (c) Definition of two-dimensional multicolored arrays. (e) Spectra of sidebands (m, 0) ( 13 | m | 1 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral profiles of sidebands (a) (4, n) ( n 0 ), and (b) (4, n) ( n 0 ).

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