Abstract

Thin-film silicon tandem solar cells are composed of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell, stacked and connected in series. In order to match the photocurrents of the top cell and the bottom cell, a proper photon management is required. Up to date, single-layer intermediate reflectors of limited spectral selectivity are applied to match the photocurrents of the top and the bottom cell. In this paper, we design and prototype multilayer intermediate reflectors based on aluminum doped zinc oxide and doped microcrystalline silicon oxide with a spectrally selective reflectance allowing for improved current matching and an overall increase of the charge carrier generation. The intermediate reflectors are successfully integrated into state-of-the-art tandem solar cells resulting in an increase of overall short-circuit current density by 0.7 mA/cm2 in comparison to a tandem solar cell with the standard single-layer intermediate reflector.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Myong and L. S. Jeon, “Improved light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells via alternated n-type silicon oxide reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 77–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lambertz, T. Grundler, and F. Finger, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin–film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Optical simulation of the role of reflecting interlayers in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 537–550 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge–produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292–294 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anna Selvan, J. A.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bailat, J.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, T.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berginski, M.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bielawny, A.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Billet, A.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bittkau, K.

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blank, B.

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacio, L. D.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buehlmann, P.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calman, S.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, K.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dominé, D.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dubail, J.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dubail, S.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fay, S.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feitknecht, J.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feltrin, A.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Finger, F.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambertz, T. Grundler, and F. Finger, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin–film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fischera, D.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flückigera, R.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, A.

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Golay, S.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordijn, A.

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grundler, T.

A. Lambertz, T. Grundler, and F. Finger, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin–film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haas, S.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hofa, C.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Höhn, O.

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hüpkes, J.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, L. S.

S. Y. Myong and L. S. Jeon, “Improved light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells via alternated n-type silicon oxide reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 77–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
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J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jost, G.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Keppnera, H.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kherani, N. P.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilper, T.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Optical simulation of the role of reflecting interlayers in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 537–550 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, M.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroll, U.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambertz, A.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambertz, T. Grundler, and F. Finger, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin–film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, K.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lina, C.-W.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lockau, D.

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahtani, P.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meillaud, F.

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Merdzhanova, T.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Myong, S. Y.

S. Y. Myong and L. S. Jeon, “Improved light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells via alternated n-type silicon oxide reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 77–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, P. G.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: A comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paetzold, U. W.

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pellaton Vaucher, N.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pieters, B. E.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Platz, R.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Puzzo, D. P.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rech, B.

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Repmann, T.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, F.

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaha, A.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shklover, V.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V.

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smole, F.

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Optical simulation of the role of reflecting interlayers in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 537–550 (2005).
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D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge–produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292–294 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Steidl, L.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
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Stiebig, H.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Optical simulation of the role of reflecting interlayers in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 537–550 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ufert, K.-D.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
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Ulbrich, C.

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Üpping, J.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van den Donker, M. N.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vos, A.

A. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieder, S.

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge–produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292–294 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zahren, C.

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zentel, R.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, T.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zschiedrich, L.

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zukotynski, S.

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge–produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292–294 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, D. Dominé, A. Billet, F. Meillaud, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “In situ silicon oxide based intermediate reflector for thin–film silicon micromorph solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free–software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Photoenergy (1)

C. Ulbrich, C. Zahren, A. Gerber, B. Blank, T. Merdzhanova, A. Gordijn, and U. Rau, “Matching of silicon thin-film tandem solar cells for maximum power output,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 314097 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Lambertz, T. Grundler, and F. Finger, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin–film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Photon. Ener. (1)

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Optical simulations of microcrystalline silicon solar cells applying plasmonic reflection grating back contacts,” J. Photon. Ener. 2(1), 027002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Hoffmann, U. W. Paetzold, T. Merdzhanova, A. Lambertz, O. Höhn, C. Ulbrich, K. Bittkau, and U. Rau, “Spectrally selective intermediate reflectors for tandem thin-film silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8823, 882305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Lockau, L. Zschiedrich, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, F. Ruske, and B. Rech, “Rigorous optical simulation of light management in crystalline silicon thin–film solar cells with rough textured interfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7933, 79330M (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (6)

J. Krc, F. Smole, and M. Topic, “Optical simulation of the role of reflecting interlayers in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 537–550 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lina, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium–tin oxide and spin–coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Myong and L. S. Jeon, “Improved light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells via alternated n-type silicon oxide reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 77–83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, R. Platz, P. Torres, U. Kroll, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, C. Hofa, D. Fischera, H. Keppnera, R. Flückigera, A. Shaha, V. Shklover, and K.-D. Ufert, “Towards high-efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with the ‘micromorph’ concept,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1–4), 35–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, S. Dubail, S. Golay, U. Kroll, S. Fay, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Feitknecht, J. Dubail, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and the impact on micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 74(1-4), 457–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambertz, V. Smirnov, T. Merdzhanova, K. Ding, S. Haas, G. Jost, R. E. I. Schropp, F. Finger, and U. Rau, “Microcrystalline silicon–oxygen alloys for application in silicon solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 134–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

B. Rech, T. Repmann, M. N. van den Donker, M. Berginski, T. Kilper, J. Hüpkes, S. Calman, H. Stiebig, and S. Wieder, “Challenges in microcrystalline silicon based solar cell technology,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 548–555 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. Theiss, “SCOUT Software Package,” http://www.mtheiss.com .

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakajima, M. Yoshimi, T. Sawada, S. Fukuda, T. Suezaki, M. Ichikawa, Y. Koi, M. Goto, H. Takata, T. Sasaki, and Y. Tawada, “Novel hybrid thin film silicon solar cell and module,” in 3rd World Conf. on PV Energy Conv. (2003).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Taylor and Francis, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of a tandem thin-film silicon solar cell with intermediate reflector. (b) The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of a tandem thin–film silicon solar cell without (black line) and with intermediate reflector (blue). Full lines give the EQE of the sub cells, the sum of the EQEs is shown in dashed lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Reflectance R into an a-Si:H half space for an increasing number of µc–SiOx:H and ZnO:Al layers. The reflectance of a single layer of 110 nm ZnO:Al (n = 2) is shown in blue. The reflectance of an alternating stack of N = 100 (IR100)/ N = 3 IR3) layers is depicted in black/ red, respectively. The reflectance of the flat IR3 stack (dashed, red line) is compared to an IR3 on rough substrate (full, red) in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmittance into the non-absorbing µc-Si:H halfspace is shown for the IR3 and ZnO IR simulated by rigorous optical simulations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured external quantum efficiency EQE and absorptance A = 1-R of a flat tandem solar cell without (black) and with our IR3 (red line). (b) EQE and absorptance A = 1-R for the various IR designs in a textured tandem solar cell on AsahiVU substrate. The EQE ratio path enhancement in the top cell in the flat case EQEtop,IR / EQEtop,w/o is shown in (c) while (d) shows the EQE ratio EQEsum,IR / EQEsum,w/o for the textured tandem solar cells.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photovoltaic parameters short circuit current density Jsc of the sub cells and sum, open-circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, as well as conversion efficiency η of the solar cells with the studied IR designs measured in a sun simulator at AM1.5 spectrum. Thicknesses of the intrinsic layers were 330 nm (a-Si:H) and a 3.2 µm (µc-Si:H).

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