Abstract

We have found that the emission spectrum of phosphors measured in the powder state differs from that measured for a single phosphor. When the emission spectrum of the powder state is adopted in an optical simulation, the simulated optical properties e.g., the correlated color temperature, color rendering index, and chromaticity coordinates, show a remarkable discrepancy from those of the fabricated LED package. However, the discrepancy is significantly improved when the emission spectrum from a low concentration of phosphor in a silicone binder is employed. We suggest that the discrepancy originates from the absorption of Stokes shifted light by a phosphor.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Borbély, A. Sámson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated color temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W.-T. Chien, C.-C. Sun, and I. Moreno, “Precise optical model of multi-chip white LEDs,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7572–7577 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, and T.-H. Yang, “Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20060–20066 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2011 (1)

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Hung and C. H. Tien, “Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A261–A271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Borbély, A. Sámson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated color temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

Borbély, A.

A. Borbély, A. Sámson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated color temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W.-T.

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cornelissen, H.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, K.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J. S.

He, H.-Y.

Hsiao, S.-L.

Hu, N.-C.

Hung, C.-H.

Jeon, S. R.

Jeong, T.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, W. H.

Kuo, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-X.

Lin, C.-C.

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.-S.

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishiura, S.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. J.

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sámson, A.

A. Borbély, A. Sámson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated color temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schanda, J.

A. Borbély, A. Sámson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated color temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

Tanabe, S.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. H.

Tran, N. T.

Tsai, J. M.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. K.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

Yang, T.-H.

Yeh, C.-W.

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, J. P.

Color Res. Appl. (1)

A. Borbély, A. Sámson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated color temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Su, L. W. Wu, Y. C. Lin, W. C. Lai, J. M. Tsai, G. C. Chi, and R. K. Wu, “White-light emission from near UV InGaN-GaN LED chip precoated with blue/green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 18–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

L. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-W. Yeh, and R.-S. Liu, “Light converting inorganic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Materials 3(3), 2172–2195 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:TAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Hamamatsu photonics, http://www.hamamatsu.com/jp/en/product/category/5001/5009/5032/C9920-02/index.html .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of (a) the system for measuring the excitation, quantum yield, and emission spectra of phosphors and (b) the interaction between the excitation light and a phosphor particle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra from the YAG:Ce3 + phosphor: (a) excitation and emission spectra in the powder state; (b) comparison of emission spectra from 0.5 wt%, 2.5 wt%, and 6 wt% films and phosphor powder. The emission spectra are normalized with peak intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of the silicate-based phosphor: (a) excitation and emission spectra in the powder state; (b) comparison of emission spectra from 0.5 wt%, 2.5 wt%, and 6 wt% films and phosphor powder. The emission spectra are normalized with peak intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image and optical model of the LED package with silicone encapsulation including the phosphor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of emission spectra between fabricated samples (solid lines) and simulation results (dotted lines). (a), (b) are emission spectra from LED packages made of YAG:Ce3 + phosphor concentration of 8 wt%, and (c), (d) are those from LED packages made of silicate-based phosphor concentration of 9 wt%. Simulations are performed with emission spectrum from the powder state ((a), (c)) and the 0.5 wt% films ((b). (d))

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of chromatic performance factors for YAG:Ce3+ and silicate-based phosphors

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