Abstract

InGaN/GaN-based solar cells with vertical-conduction feature on silicon substrates were fabricated by wafer bonding technique. The vertical solar cells with a metal reflector sandwiched between the GaN-based epitaxial layers and the Si substrate could increase the effective thickness of the absorption layer. Given that the thermally resistive sapphire substrates were replaced by the Si substrate with high thermal conductivity, the solar cells did not show degradation in power conversion efficiency (PCE) even when the solar concentrations were increased to 300 suns. The open circuit voltage increased from 1.90 V to 2.15 V and the fill factor increased from 0.55 to 0.58 when the concentrations were increased from 1 sun to 300 suns. With the 300-sun illumination, the PCE was enhanced by approximately 33% compared with the 1-sun illumination.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

J. Bai, C. C. Yang, M. Athanasiou, and T. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN solar cells with nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Moses and C. G. Van de Walle, “Band bowing and band alignment in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Singh, D. Doppalapudi, T. D. Moustakas, and L. T. Romano, “Phase separation in InGaN thick films and formation of InGaN/GaN double heterostructures in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ager, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agui, T.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Araki, K.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aryal, K.

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Athanasiou, M.

J. Bai, C. C. Yang, M. Athanasiou, and T. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN solar cells with nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

J. Bai, C. C. Yang, M. Athanasiou, and T. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN solar cells with nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, K. E.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhusari, D.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bouazzi, A. S.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Costa, P. M. F. J.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cotal, H.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cotal, H. L.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, S. C.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahal, R.

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doppalapudi, D.

R. Singh, D. Doppalapudi, T. D. Moustakas, and L. T. Romano, “Phase separation in InGaN thick films and formation of InGaN/GaN double heterostructures in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edmondson, K.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, J. H.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C. M.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuyuki, T.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamzaoui, H.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, P.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Holec, D.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. K.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. S.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, E.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C. H.

Jiang, H. X.

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. K.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaneiwa, M.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

D. Holec, P. M. F. J. Costa, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Critical thickness calculations for InGaN/GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 303(1), 314–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karam, N. H.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

King, R. R.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G. S.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krut, D. D.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, H.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. W.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. Y.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. M.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. T.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Q.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, W. K.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, P. G.

P. G. Moses and C. G. Van de Walle, “Band bowing and band alignment in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

R. Singh, D. Doppalapudi, T. D. Moustakas, and L. T. Romano, “Phase separation in InGaN thick films and formation of InGaN/GaN double heterostructures in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pantha, B.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rehder, E.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(6), 801–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rezig, B.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

R. Singh, D. Doppalapudi, T. D. Moustakas, and L. T. Romano, “Phase separation in InGaN thick films and formation of InGaN/GaN double heterostructures in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sherif, R. A.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multi-junction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, D. Doppalapudi, T. D. Moustakas, and L. T. Romano, “Phase separation in InGaN thick films and formation of InGaN/GaN double heterostructures in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(9), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takamoto, T.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toledo, N. G.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Unno, T.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uraoka, Y.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

P. G. Moses and C. G. Van de Walle, “Band bowing and band alignment in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

J. Bai, C. C. Yang, M. Athanasiou, and T. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN solar cells with nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

R. H. Horng, S. T. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, M. T. Chu, W. Y. Liao, M. H. Wu, R. M. Lin, and Y. C. Lu, “Improved conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN thin-film solar cells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(7), 724–726 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

J. Bai, C. C. Yang, M. Athanasiou, and T. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN solar cells with nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051129 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, Y. H. Yeh, and W. C. Lai, “Characteristics of InGaN-based concentrator solar cells operating under 150X solar concentration,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A695–A700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. C.

Y. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. K. Hsu, S. J. Tu, S. Y. Liu, C. C. Yang, and F. W. Huang, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diodes with Ag paste as bonding layer,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 949–951 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. H.

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

isR. Dahal, J. Li, K. Aryal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. J. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in InxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741–4743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Typical top-view SEM image taken from the proposed vertical InGaN/GaN/Si solar cell. The inset shows the enlarged SEM image taken from the surface. (b) Schematic layer structure of the vertical solar cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical J-V and P-V characteristics of the vertical GaN/InGaN solar cells with green-band absorption layer illuminated by the one-sun AM1.5G condition. (b) Relative external quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of incident light wavelength and electroluminescence spectrum as the vertical green cells was driven with a forward current of 350 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical J-V characteristics under different irradiance intensities up to 300 suns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) VOC and FF as functions of solar concentration. (b) PCE as functions of solar concentration.

Equations (4)

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J = J 0 { exp ( q V n k T ) 1 } J S C
V O C ( M ) = n k T q ln ( J s c ( M ) J 0 + 1 ) V O C ( 1 ) + n k T q ln ( M )
F F = v o c ln ( v o c + 0.72 ) v o c + 1 a n d v o c = q V O C n k T
FF1 1 v oc ln( v oc )

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