Abstract

In this paper, we examine the optical loss mechanisms and mitigation strategies in classical photovoltaic light trapping structures consisting of diffractive gratings integrated with a backside reflector, which couple normal incident solar radiation into guided modes in solar cells to enhance optical absorption. Parasitic absorption from metal or dielectric backside reflectors is identified to be a major loss contributor in such light trapping structures. We elucidate the optical loss mechanism based on the classical coupled mode theory. Further, a spacer design is proposed and validated through numerical simulations to significantly suppress the parasitic loss and improve solar cell performance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Goetzberger and C. Hebling, “Photovoltaic materials, past, present, future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62(1-2), 1–19 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. G. Mutitu, S. Y. Shi, C. H. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15238–15248 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Y. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian Limit of Light Trapping in Thin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e106 (2013).
  17. X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. S. Hegedus and R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p-i-n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbo, and E. S. Marstein, “Comparison of periodic light-trapping structures in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e106 (2013).

2012 (2)

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbo, and E. S. Marstein, “Comparison of periodic light-trapping structures in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian Limit of Light Trapping in Thin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Mutitu, S. Y. Shi, C. H. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15238–15248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. S. Hegedus and R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p-i-n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Goetzberger and C. Hebling, “Photovoltaic materials, past, present, future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62(1-2), 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1990 (1)

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G. A. J.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arya, R. R.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e106 (2013).

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

Bartlett, P. N.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

D. Y. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, K. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, L. Z.

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charriere, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, G.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian Limit of Light Trapping in Thin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronel, N.

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Creazzo, T.

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wolf, S.

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e106 (2013).

Deckman, H. W.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Escarre, J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. H. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

Gjessing, J.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbo, and E. S. Marstein, “Comparison of periodic light-trapping structures in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger and C. Hebling, “Photovoltaic materials, past, present, future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62(1-2), 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. E.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian Limit of Light Trapping in Thin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F. J.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hawkeye, M.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, C.

A. Goetzberger and C. Hebling, “Photovoltaic materials, past, present, future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62(1-2), 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hegedus, S. S.

S. S. Hegedus and R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p-i-n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holman, Z. C.

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e106 (2013).

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, R.

S. S. Hegedus and R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p-i-n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozinsky, I.

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, N. N.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Marstein, E. S.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbo, and E. S. Marstein, “Comparison of periodic light-trapping structures in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutitu, J. G.

Odowd, J. G.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Z.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Raman, A.

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rech, B.

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, X.

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S. Y.

Sinha, J. K.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soderstrom, K.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sudbo, A. S.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbo, and E. S. Marstein, “Comparison of periodic light-trapping structures in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiedeman, S.

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

Witzke, H.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wronski, C. R.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. F.

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and Non-Lithographic Fabrication of Light Trapping Structures for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous-silicon solar-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Sheng, J. F. Liu, N. Coronel, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1394–1396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. Odowd, and S. Wiedeman, “Absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar-cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(2), 1079–1087 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbo, and E. S. Marstein, “Comparison of periodic light-trapping structures in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. C. Holman, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Improving metal reflectors by suppressing surface plasmon polaritons: a priori calculation of the internal reflectance of a solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e106 (2013).

Nano Lett. (2)

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian Limit of Light Trapping in Thin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F. J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. N. Lal, H. Zhou, M. Hawkeye, J. K. Sinha, P. N. Bartlett, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and J. J. Baumberg, “Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245318 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. F. Yu, A. Raman, and S. H. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

S. S. Hegedus and R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p-i-n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Muller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Goetzberger and C. Hebling, “Photovoltaic materials, past, present, future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62(1-2), 1–19 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical absorption in the DBR with (green line) and without (magenta line) a spacer layer between the grating and the DBR; (b) and (c) simulated electric field intensity distribution in the cell structures (b) with and (c) without a spacer layer when the phase matching condition is met; (d) schematic illustration of absorption suppression mechanism by adding the spacer layer: the diffraction order phase matched to the guided (super)modes in the DBR and hence responsible for excitation of the guided modes becomes evanescent in the low-index spacer layer, and therefore rapidly decays away from the grating. Consequently, coupling into the guided modes is minimized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of spacer layer thickness on integrated photon current (in the wavelength range of 750 nm to 900 nm) and DBR absorption in the thin c-Si solar cell structure analyzed in ([20]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical absorption in the metal reflector with (green line) and without (magenta line) a spacer layer between the grating and the metal reflector; (b) and (c) simulated electric field intensity distribution in the structures shown in Fig. 3(a) inset (b) with and (c) without the spacer layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of spacer layer thickness on integrated photon current (in the wavelength range of 750 nm to 900 nm, green line) and aluminum absorption (magenta line) in the thin c-Si cell structure schematically shown in the inset.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m × 2 π Λ = β g m , ( m N )
m × 2 π Λ = β s p p = 2 π λ 0 ε d × ε m ε d + ε m , ( m N )

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