Abstract

We demonstrate the high efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diode (LED) grown on the electrochemically etched nanoporous (NP) GaN. The photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra show that the LEDs with NP GaN have a strong carrier localization effect resulting from the relaxed strain and reduced defect density in MQWs. Also, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows that the light extraction efficiency (LEE) is increased by light scattering effect by nanopores. The output power of LED with NP GaN is increased up to 123.1% at 20 mA, compared to that of LED without NP GaN. The outstanding performance of LEDs with NP GaN is attributed to the increased internal quantum efficiency (IQE) by the carrier localization in the indium-rich clusters, low defect density in MQWs, and increased LEE owing to the light scattering in NP GaN.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp 145–162.
  2. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 14(281), 956–961 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024–10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273, 24–32 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3451–3455 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Li, Y. Feng, and Y. Liu, “An electrical model of InGaN based high power light emitting diodes with self-heating effect,” proc. SPIE 6669, 66691 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, Y. Feng, and Y. Liu, “An electrical model of InGaN based high power light emitting diodes with self-heating effect,” proc. SPIE 6669, 66691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 14(281), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024–10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3451–3455 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alomar, A. S.

M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baik, J. M.

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024–10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3451–3455 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bremers, H.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M. D.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. T.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, S. Y.

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De, S.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Sousa Pereira, S. M.

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, S.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

B. Li, Y. Feng, and Y. Liu, “An electrical model of InGaN based high power light emitting diodes with self-heating effect,” proc. SPIE 6669, 66691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024–10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrmann, D.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghannam, M. Y.

M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gokhale, M. R.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grobe, E.

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3451–3455 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hangleiter, A.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartono, H.

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, M.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hiruta, R.

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, L.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. S.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R. H.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, G. Y.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kadir, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. E.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. U.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kisielowski, C.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knabe, K.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudo, H.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuribayashi, H.

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Layek, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. L.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leung, B.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

B. Li, Y. Feng, and Y. Liu, “An electrical model of InGaN based high power light emitting diodes with self-heating effect,” proc. SPIE 6669, 66691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. F.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. M.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

B. Li, Y. Feng, and Y. Liu, “An electrical model of InGaN based high power light emitting diodes with self-heating effect,” proc. SPIE 6669, 66691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martins, M. A.

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, R. P.

M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mizushima, I.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, M.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 14(281), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netzel, C.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. A.

M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poortmans, J.

M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raja, A.

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, U.

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruvimov, S.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, C. J.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. W.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, C.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, R.

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimonishi, S.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, R.

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soh, C. B.

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sondergeld, M.

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3451–3455 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudoh, K.

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, K.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadatomo, K.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, K.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, S.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trindade, T.

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsunashima, Y.

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueki, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024–10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. C.

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E. R.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. R.

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ye, B. U.

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yerino, C.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. K.

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J. L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. De, A. Layek, A. Raja, A. Kadir, M. R. Gokhale, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Two distinct origins of highly localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3828–3835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

S. M. de Sousa Pereira, M. A. Martins, T. Trindade, I. M. Watson, D. Zhu, and C. J. Humphreys, “Controlled integration of nanocrystals in inverted hexagonal nano-pits at the surface of light-emitting heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 1038–1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “The spatial distribution of threading dislocations in gallium nitride films,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3941–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J. L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

C. Y. Cho, S. E. Kang, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Choi, S. H. Han, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction in light-emitting diodes with photonic crystal structure selectively grown on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hartono, C. B. Soh, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN grown on strain relaxed nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Soh, H. Hartono, S. Y. Chow, S. J. Chua, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Dislocation annihilation in regrown GaN on nanoporous GaN template with optimization of buffer layer growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 053112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, R. Shivaraman, K. C. Wang, and J. S. Speck, “Analyzing the physical properties of InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes from nano scale structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, L. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. (1)

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, R. H. Jiang, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown air-void structure in the InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, “Void shape evolution and formation of silicon-on-nothing structures during hydrogen annealing of hole arrays on Si(001),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ghannam, A. S. Alomar, J. Poortmans, and R. P. Mertens, “Interpretation of macropore shape transformation in crystalline silicon upon high temperature processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara, and Y. Tsunashima, “Fabrication of silicon-on-nothing structure by substrate engineering using the empty-space-in-silicon formation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024–10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimberg, M. Sondergeld, and E. Grobe, “Thermal dissociation of excitons bounds to neutral acceptors in high-purity GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3451–3455 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. Netzel, H. Bremers, L. Hoffmann, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Emission and recombination characteristics of Ga1−xInxN/GaN quantum well structures with nonradiative recombination suppression by V-shaped pits,” Phys. Rev. B 76(15), 155322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Solidi B (1)

Y. Zhang, S. W. Ryu, C. Yerino, B. Leung, Q. Sun, Q. Song, H. Cao, and J. Han, “A conductivity-based selective etching for next generation GaN devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(7), 1713–1716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

proc. SPIE (1)

B. Li, Y. Feng, and Y. Liu, “An electrical model of InGaN based high power light emitting diodes with self-heating effect,” proc. SPIE 6669, 66691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 14(281), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp 145–162.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of LEDs grown on a NP GaN layer, (b) SEM image of NP GaN-embedded LED structure etched at an applied voltage of 17 V. (c) Top and (d) cross-sectional SEM images of NP GaN etched at an applied voltage of 17 V.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of GaN grown on an NP GaN layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Room-temperature PL spectra of a MQW structure grown on a NP GaN layer. (b) Peak position and FWHM of PL for reference LED, and LED(NP GaN)-1, −2, and −3. (c) Peak shift of TDPL spectra of LEDs grown on NP GaN layers. (d) Arrhenius plot for LEDs grown on NP GaN layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagrams with calculated electric-field distributions of (a) LED without NP GaN, and (b) LED with NP GaN. (c) The size distribution of nanovoids used in FDTD simulations over an area of 2.5 × 2.5 μm of NP GaN-3 in LED(NP GaN-3). The inset shows an SEM image of NP GaN in LED(NP GaN-3). (d) Calculated light intensity as a function of simulation time for LEDs with and without NP GaN. (e) The IQE and enhanced LEE of reference LED and LED(NP GaN)s assuming that the LEE of LED without nanoporous GaN is 100%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) I-V curve and (b) optical output power of reference LED and LED(NP GaN)-1, −2, and −3.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ω γ = ω γ ω o = K γ σ x x
E g ( T )= E g ( 0 ) α T 2 Tβ σ 2 k B T
I( T )= I( 0 ) 1+Cexp( E a / k B T )
V F = n k B T q ln( I F A )+ E g (T) q + I F R S

Metrics