Abstract

Non-uniform irradiance patterns over Multi-Junction Cells gives rise to power losses, especially when considering spectral irradiance distributions over different junctions. Thermal effects on Silicone-on-Glass lenses affect spectral irradiance distributions. A new Photovoltaic Concentrator (CPV), formed by nine optical channels, each one with a Köhler configuration, has been designed to overcome these effects at high concentrations for a large acceptance angle. A Fresnel Lens with a Variable Focal Point is proposed to prevent optical crosstalk in multichannel systems. When integrated into the concentrator, improves the acceptance angle. These designs are designed to fulfill the expected requirements of four junction CPV systems.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics, (Elsevier Academic University, 2005).
  2. I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. García, C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, and B. Galiana, “Study of non-uniform light profiles on high concentration III–V solar cells using quasi-3D distributed models,” in IEEE 33rd Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
  4. M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.
  6. R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. W. James and W. James, “Use of imaging refractive secondaries in photovoltaic concentrators,” Contractor Report SAND89-7029, Sandia Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (1989)
  12. T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” in IEEE 35th Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 487–492.
  13. J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Gombert and F. Rubio, “The importance of manufacturing processes and their control for the reliability of CPV systems,” in Proceedings of AIP 9th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2013), Vol. 1556, pp. 279–283.
  15. S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.
  16. T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, “Estimation of the influence of Fresnel lens temperature on energy generation of a concentrator photovoltaic system,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 99, 333–338 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.
  18. P. Benítez and J.C. Miñano, “Concentrator optics for the next generation photovoltaic,” in Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization, A. Marti and A. Luque, eds. (Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

2013 (2)

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, “Estimation of the influence of Fresnel lens temperature on energy generation of a concentrator photovoltaic system,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 99, 333–338 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Algora, C.

I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

I. García, C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, and B. Galiana, “Study of non-uniform light profiles on high concentration III–V solar cells using quasi-3D distributed models,” in IEEE 33rd Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

Antón, I.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

Askins, S.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

Benítez, P.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez and J.C. Miñano, “Concentrator optics for the next generation photovoltaic,” in Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization, A. Marti and A. Luque, eds. (Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics, (Elsevier Academic University, 2005).

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

Bessler, Y.

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.

Bhusari, D.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blen, J.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Buljan, M.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaves, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

Cohen, J.

T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” in IEEE 35th Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 487–492.

Cotal, H.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cvetkovic, A.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Domínguez, C.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

Dross, O.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Edmondson, K.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, J. H.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Espinet-Gonzaález, P.

I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Espinet-González, P.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Fernandéz, P. M.

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

Fetzer, C. M.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

Galiana, B.

I. García, C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, and B. Galiana, “Study of non-uniform light profiles on high concentration III–V solar cells using quasi-3D distributed models,” in IEEE 33rd Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

García, I.

I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. García, C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, and B. Galiana, “Study of non-uniform light profiles on high concentration III–V solar cells using quasi-3D distributed models,” in IEEE 33rd Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Gombert, A.

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.

A. Gombert and F. Rubio, “The importance of manufacturing processes and their control for the reliability of CPV systems,” in Proceedings of AIP 9th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2013), Vol. 1556, pp. 279–283.

Gonzaléz, O.

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

Hernandéz, M.

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

Hernández, M.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Herrero, R.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

Hoffman, R.

J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

Hornung, T.

T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, “Estimation of the influence of Fresnel lens temperature on energy generation of a concentrator photovoltaic system,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 99, 333–338 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ibarreche, A.

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

James, L. W.

L. W. James and W. James, “Use of imaging refractive secondaries in photovoltaic concentrators,” Contractor Report SAND89-7029, Sandia Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (1989)

James, W.

L. W. James and W. James, “Use of imaging refractive secondaries in photovoltaic concentrators,” Contractor Report SAND89-7029, Sandia Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (1989)

Jones, R. K.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karam, N. H.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

King, D.

J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

King, R. R.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Liu, X. Q.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luce, T.

T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” in IEEE 35th Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 487–492.

Miñano, J. C.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics, (Elsevier Academic University, 2005).

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

Miñano, J.C.

P. Benítez and J.C. Miñano, “Concentrator optics for the next generation photovoltaic,” in Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization, A. Marti and A. Luque, eds. (Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohedano, R.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Neubauer, M.

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.

Nitz, P.

T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, “Estimation of the influence of Fresnel lens temperature on energy generation of a concentrator photovoltaic system,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 99, 333–338 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.

Ponsardin, P.

J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

Rehder, E.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rey-Stolle, I.

I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. García, C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, and B. Galiana, “Study of non-uniform light profiles on high concentration III–V solar cells using quasi-3D distributed models,” in IEEE 33rd Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Rubio, F.

A. Gombert and F. Rubio, “The importance of manufacturing processes and their control for the reliability of CPV systems,” in Proceedings of AIP 9th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2013), Vol. 1556, pp. 279–283.

Sala, G.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

Santamaría, A.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schult, T.

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.

Steiner, M.

T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, “Estimation of the influence of Fresnel lens temperature on energy generation of a concentrator photovoltaic system,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 99, 333–338 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Victoria, M.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

Vilaplana, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winston, R.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics, (Elsevier Academic University, 2005).

Zamora, I. P.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

Zamora, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

I. García, P. Espinet-Gonzaález, I. Rey-Stolle, and C. Algora, “Analysis of chromatic aberration effects in triple-junction solar cells using advanced distributed models,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 1, 219–224, (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Photonics Energy (1)

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Free-form integrator array optics,” J. Photonics Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form optics for Fresnel-lens-based photovoltaic concentrators,” Opt. Express 21, 494–502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, P. Zamora, M. Buljan, R. Mohedano, and A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, R. Hoffman, D. King, and P. Ponsardin, “Performance of silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses in EMCORE’s Gen 3 high-concentration concentrator photovoltaic system,” Proc. SPIE 8468, 84680G (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics (2)

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, X. Q. Liu, E. Rehder, K. Edmondson, H. Cotal, R. K. Jones, J. H. Ermer, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Solar cell generations over 40% efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 206, 801–815, (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 21, 308–318 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. (1)

T. Hornung, M. Steiner, and P. Nitz, “Estimation of the influence of Fresnel lens temperature on energy generation of a concentrator photovoltaic system,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 99, 333–338 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, Y. Bessler, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lens for concentrated photovoltaics,” in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Concentrating Photovoltaic Optics and Power, Darmstadt, Germany, 9–10 March, 2009.

P. Benítez and J.C. Miñano, “Concentrator optics for the next generation photovoltaic,” in Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization, A. Marti and A. Luque, eds. (Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetković, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzaléz, P. Zamora, P. Benítez, P. M. Fernandéz, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandéz, J. Chaves, and J. C. Miñano, “Performance modeling of Fresnel-based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 74–78.

http://www.soitec.com/en/news/press-releases/world-record-solar-cell-1373/ , accessed on January 20, 2014.

A. Gombert and F. Rubio, “The importance of manufacturing processes and their control for the reliability of CPV systems,” in Proceedings of AIP 9th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2013), Vol. 1556, pp. 279–283.

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance,” in Proceedings of AIP 7th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, (AIP, 2011), Vol. 1407, pp. 57–60.

P. Espinet-González, R. Mohedano, I. García, I. P. Zamora, I. Rey-Stolle, P. Benítez, C. Algora, A. Cvetković, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, and Y. Li, “Triple-junction solar cell performance under Fresnel-based concentrators taking into account chromatic aberration and off-axis operation,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems (AIP, 2012) 1477, pp. 81–84.

I. García, C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, and B. Galiana, “Study of non-uniform light profiles on high concentration III–V solar cells using quasi-3D distributed models,” in IEEE 33rd Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

L. W. James and W. James, “Use of imaging refractive secondaries in photovoltaic concentrators,” Contractor Report SAND89-7029, Sandia Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (1989)

T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” in IEEE 35th Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 487–492.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics, (Elsevier Academic University, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

On the left - Schematic view of FK9 concentrator. Three different fold types, central, lateral and diagonal (in the picture, orange, green and blue, respectively) form a 9 fold system. Each sector of the SOE images the corresponding sector of the POE in the cell. On the right - FK9 ray tracing simulation, where the 9 focus on SOE sectors are visible, as well as the image on the cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of FK9 with Fresnel Lens with Variable Focal Point (FL-VFP). On the left - Section view of the concentrator on the optical axis plane. On the right - Isometric schematic view of the system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray tracing of 1000x FK9 and FK9 with FL-VFP for an off-axis angle of 1.2°. On the left, it is visible the optical crosstalk situation on the SOE while on the right, with FK9 with FL-VFP, the crosstalk is prevented, further improving the acceptance angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FK9 and FK9 FL-VFP acceptance curves for Cg = 1000x. For the FK9, acceptance angle is ±1.12°, while for FK9 with FL-VFP, the acceptance angle is ±1.2°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1000x FK9 spectral irradiance distributions for Top, Middle, and Bottom junction of a Triple MJ cell, for normal incidence and for a misalignment angle of 0.8°. The irradiance distribution is analyzed throughout the full Sun light spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of CAP between different Fresnel lens-based systems with rather good to excellent irradiance uniformity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral Irradiance distributions on Top and Bottom cell for three different CPV systems well known for their excellent irradiance uniformity at specific concentrations -C(x) gives the irradiance on the point x over the irradiance at the concentrator’s aperture (Fresnel lens).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 FK9 and FK9 FL-VFP concentrator simulation results for Cg=1000x

Equations (1)

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CAP = C g sin α

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