Abstract

Homoepitaxially grown InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with SiO2 nanodisks embedded in n-GaN and p-GaN as photonic crystal (PhC) structures by nanospherical-lens photolithography are presented and investigated. The introduction of SiO2 nanodisks doesn’t produce the new dislocations and doesn’t also result in the electrical deterioration of PhC LEDs. The light output power of homoepitaxial LEDs with embedded PhC and double PhC at 350 mA current is increased by 29.9% and 47.2%, respectively, compared to that without PhC. The corresponding light radiation patterns in PhC LEDs on GaN substrate show a narrow beam shape due to strong guided light extraction, with a view angle reduction of about 30°. The PhC LEDs are also analyzed in detail by finite-difference time-domain simulation (FDTD) to further reveal the emission characteristics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).
  9. Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

2009

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akita, K.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aldaz, R. I.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, S. D.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S.

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Brinkley, S. E.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-L.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.-C.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-F.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-J.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-H.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Evelyn, M. P.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Duan, R.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.-H.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goano, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.-D.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.-L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. K.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-F.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R.-H.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, K.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keraly, C. L.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitabayashi, H.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koslow, I.

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Krames, M. R.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kretchmer, J.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-K.

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kyono, T.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lan, D.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-D.

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. M.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. H.

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Q.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-H.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D. S.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Pan, C.-C.

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Park, S.-J.

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. K.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sonoda, J.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steranka, F. M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verzellesi, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. H.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. B.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, R.

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C. H.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q. F.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. H.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H.-H.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X. Y.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizumi, Y.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y. P.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. X.

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. J.

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Express

Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).

S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the process for the fabrication of embedded PhC and double PhC LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross-sectional view of embedded PhC of SiO2 nanodisks surrounded by n-GaN and (b) tilted top-view of p-GaN surface with top SiO2 PhC structure. (c) Cross-sectional TEM image of the LED with embedded SiO2 PhC. (d) is the magnified region of MQWs from PhC LED in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The reverse and forward I-V characteristics of the LEDs without and with PhC structures on a logarithmic scale. Inset: corresponding enlarged forward I-V curves closed to the turn-on voltage. (b) Peak wavelength of the EL emission spectra of the LEDs at a current of 350 mA. (c) Optical output power (L-I) of these LEDs as a function of injection current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized relative far-field emission patterns of the LEDs without and with SiO2 PhC structures at a driving current of 200 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The schematic representation of the 2D FDTD simulation for the double PhC LED. FDTD simulation of light propagation in (b) LED without PhC, (c) LED with embedded PhC and (d) LED with double PhC on FS-GaN substrate.

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