Abstract

Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes were significantly enhanced using silver nanostructures incorporated in periodic micro-hole patterned multi quantum wells (MQWs). Our results show an enhancement of 60% in the wall-plug efficiency at an injection current of 100 mA when Ag nano-particles were deposited on side facet of MQWs passivated with SiO2. This improvement can be attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate through resonance coupling between localized surface plasmons in Ag nano-particles and the excitons in MQWs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

2011

2010

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced nitride-based light-emitting diode with Ag nanotriangle array by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 984–986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z. L.

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced nitride-based light-emitting diode with Ag nanotriangle array by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 984–986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choe, J. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-H.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Constant, K.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-H.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harbers, G.

Ho, J. K.

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-M.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichihara, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iota, V.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jang, L.-W.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, D.-W.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.-W.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. R.

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Jiang, H. X.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jo, D.-S.

Ju, J.-W.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, T.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-E.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced nitride-based light-emitting diode with Ag nanotriangle array by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 984–986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katzer, D. S.

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-H.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-S.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

Kim, J. K.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, T. G.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kisielowski, C.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knabe, K.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Kruger, J.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-K.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-Y.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E.-H.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-H.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.-W.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-G.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

B. Sun, L. Zhao, T. Wei, X. Yi, Z. Liu, G. Wang, J. Li, and F. Yi, “Light extraction enhancement of bulk GaN light-emitting diode with hemisphere-cones-hybrid surface,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18537–18544 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced nitride-based light-emitting diode with Ag nanotriangle array by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 984–986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Liu, Z.

Maltezos, G.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mattos, L.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mohammadizia, A.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neogi, A.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O, B.-H.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ong, H. C.

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

Park, H. J.

Park, I.-K.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-M.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-G.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-J.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polyakov, A. Y.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, D. C.

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-Y.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sahoo, T.

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, N. A.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shin, Y. C.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.-H.

Song, Y. H.

Su, Y. K.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced nitride-based light-emitting diode with Ag nanotriangle array by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 984–986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Sung, J.-H.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Wang, G.

Wang, T.

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E. R.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Weinstein, B. A.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

Yang, J.

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. S.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-K.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D.-S. Jo, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I.-H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, F.

Yi, X.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, L.

Zhou, L.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

L.-W. Jang, D.-W. Jeon, M. Kim, J.-W. Jeon, A. Y. Polyakov, J.-W. Ju, S.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, J.-K. Yang, and I.-H. Lee, “Investigation of optical and structural stability of localized surface plasmon mediated light-emitting diodes by Ag and Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(13), 2728–2734 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J.-H. Sung, J. S. Yang, B.-S. Kim, C.-H. Choi, M.-W. Lee, S.-G. Lee, S.-G. Park, E.-H. Lee, and B.-H. O, “Enhancement of electroluminescence in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y.-J. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Perlin, C. Kisielowski, V. Iota, B. A. Weinstein, L. Mattos, N. A. Shapiro, J. Kruger, E. R. Weber, and J. Yang, “InGaN/GaN quantum wells studied by high pressure, variable temperature, and excitation power spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(19), 2778–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, D. C. Reynolds, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, W. S. Rabinovich, and D. S. Katzer, “Evidence for strong spatially localized band-filling effects at interface islands,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2581–2583 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, E. H. Kim, J.-M. Park, K.-M. Ho, K. Constant, J. H. Choe, Q. H. Park, H.-Y. Ryu, J. H. Baek, T. Jung, and T. G. Kim, “High efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes with two dimensional photonic crystal structures of deep-hole square lattices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 116–120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced nitride-based light-emitting diode with Ag nanotriangle array by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 984–986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, M. Ichihara, and H. Kuroda, “Low- and high-order nonlinear optical properties of Au, Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

Nanotechnology

C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, J.-W. Kang, S.-E. Kang, D.-Y. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564–11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, G. Maltezos, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, Y. Kawakami, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced bright light emission from InGaN/GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(6), 2103–2107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram and Nomarski microscope images of Ag surface plasmon embedded periodic μ-holes LEDs. The μ-holes passed through MQWs and Ag nanoparticles are deposited on the nearest side facet of MQWs with SiO2 passivation. The motive principles are the promotion of coupling between edge-emitting excitons and Ag LSPs. In addition, the Ag nano-wires were deposited on ITO contact layer to create a connecting network over the μ-holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) Ag nano-wires and (b) nano-particles. (c) SEM images of periodic μ-holes patterned LEDs and Ag nano-particle deposited μ-holes area. (d) High magnification SEM images of the side facet of μ-holes with Ag nano-particles and Ag nano-wire bridge networks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation power dependent PL spectra of μ-holes patterned LED (a) without and (b) with Ag LSPs. The abnormal peaks in ~450 nm were caused by grating change of PL instrument. (c) Plots of integrated PL intensity and (d) dominant maximum PL peak energy depending on excitation power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images of μ-holes patterned LED (a) without and (b) with Ag LSPs. CLSM measured using the semiconductor diode laser (λ = 405 nm) and band filter to collect the light from 450 nm to 480 nm wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) EL output power and I-V characteristics measured from μ-holes patterned LEDs with and without Ag LSPs as a function of injection currents. (b) Wall plug efficiency (ηWPE) and efficiency enhancement factor (FWPEηwith/ηwithout) plots as a function of an injection current of μ-holes patterned LED with (ηwith) and without (ηwithout) Ag LSPs.

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