Abstract

We studied optical resonances in laterally oriented Si nanowire arrays by conducting finite-difference time-domain simulations. Localized Fabry-Perot and whispering-gallery modes are supported within the cross section of each nanowire in the array and result in broadband light absorption. Comparison of a nanowire array with a single nanowire shows that the current density (JSC) is preserved for a range of nanowire morphologies. The JSC of a nanowire array depends on the spacing of its constituent nanowires, which indicates that both diffraction and optical antenna effects contribute to light absorption. Furthermore, a vertically stacked nanowire array exhibits significantly enhanced light absorption because of the emergence of coupled cavity-waveguide modes and the mitigation of a screening effect. With the assumption of unity internal quantum efficiency, the JSC of an 800-nm-thick cross-stacked nanowire array is 14.0 mA/cm2, which yields a ~60% enhancement compared with an equivalent bulk film absorber. These numerical results underpin a rational design strategy for ultrathin solar absorbers based on assembled nanowire cavities.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

Y.-S. No, J. H. Choi, H.-S. Ee, M.-S. Hwang, K.-Y. Jeong, E.-K. Lee, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “A Double-Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Coupled to an Electrically Driven Nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 772–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fan, K. C. Y. Huang, L. Cao, and M. L. Brongersma, “Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 392–396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, “A nanoscale combing technique for the large-scale assembly of highly aligned nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(5), 329–335 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

S.-K. Kim, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of input couplers for efficient silicon thin film solar absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A997–A1004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in Core/Shell Silicon Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices through Morphological Design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Tang, Z. Huo, S. Brittman, H. Gao, and P. Yang, “Solution-Processed Core-Shell Nanowires for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 568–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned Radial GaAs Nanopillar Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (9)

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad and S. S. Saini, “Silicon nanowire optical waveguide (SNOW),” Opt. Express 18(22), 23442–23457 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Hossain, G. Chen, B. Jia, X.-H. Wang, and M. Gu, “Optimization of enhanced absorption in 3D-woodpile metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9048–9054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Soderstrom, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kupec, R. L. Stoop, and B. Witzigmann, “Light absorption and emission in nanowire array solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27589–27605 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-Conversion Properties of Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Grown Silicon Wire-Array Photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kupec and B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, Wave Propagation and Efficiency Analysis of Nanowire Solar Cells,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10399–10410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-F. Cui, R. Ruffo, C. K. Chan, H. Peng, and Y. Cui, “Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 491–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-Quantum-Well Nanowire Heterostructures for Wavelength-Controlled Lasers,” Nat. Mater. 7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical Antenna Effect in Semiconducting Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Plante and R. R. Lapierre, “Control of GaAs nanowire morphology and crystal structure,” Nanotechnology 19(49), 495603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN Nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/Multishell Nanowire Heterostructures as Multicolor, High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aagesen, M.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M. M.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aloni, S.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN Nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anantram, M. P.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-Conversion Properties of Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Grown Silicon Wire-Array Photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

K. Soderstrom, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bareno, J.

B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, D. C.

T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boettcher, S. W.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-Conversion Properties of Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Grown Silicon Wire-Array Photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brittman, S.

J. Tang, Z. Huo, S. Brittman, H. Gao, and P. Yang, “Solution-Processed Core-Shell Nanowires for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 568–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

P. Fan, K. C. Y. Huang, L. Cao, and M. L. Brongersma, “Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 392–396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brönstrup, G.

G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cahoon, J. F.

J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in Core/Shell Silicon Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices through Morphological Design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

P. Fan, K. C. Y. Huang, L. Cao, and M. L. Brongersma, “Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 392–396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celano, T. A.

J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. K.

L.-F. Cui, R. Ruffo, C. K. Chan, H. Peng, and Y. Cui, “Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 491–495 (2009).
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Chen, G.

M. M. Hossain, G. Chen, B. Jia, X.-H. Wang, and M. Gu, “Optimization of enhanced absorption in 3D-woodpile metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9048–9054 (2010).
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G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical Antenna Effect in Semiconducting Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, B.

B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

Y.-S. No, J. H. Choi, H.-S. Ee, M.-S. Hwang, K.-Y. Jeong, E.-K. Lee, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “A Double-Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Coupled to an Electrically Driven Nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 772–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chueh, Y.-L.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Csáki, A.

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubero, O.

K. Soderstrom, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, L.-F.

L.-F. Cui, R. Ruffo, C. K. Chan, H. Peng, and Y. Cui, “Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 491–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

L.-F. Cui, R. Ruffo, C. K. Chan, H. Peng, and Y. Cui, “Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 491–495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, R. W.

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in Core/Shell Silicon Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices through Morphological Design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, K.-D. Song, T. J. Kempa, R. W. Day, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Design of Nanowire Optical Cavities as Efficient Photon Absorbers,” ACS Nano140313143802002 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Demichel, O.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-Quantum-Well Nanowire Heterostructures for Wavelength-Controlled Lasers,” Nat. Mater. 7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Dong, Y.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-Quantum-Well Nanowire Heterostructures for Wavelength-Controlled Lasers,” Nat. Mater. 7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ee, H.-S.

Y.-S. No, J. H. Choi, H.-S. Ee, M.-S. Hwang, K.-Y. Jeong, E.-K. Lee, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “A Double-Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Coupled to an Electrically Driven Nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 772–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eklund, P. C.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical Antenna Effect in Semiconducting Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergen, O.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Escarre, J.

K. Soderstrom, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, P.

P. Fan, K. C. Y. Huang, L. Cao, and M. L. Brongersma, “Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 392–396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
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Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, C. J.

J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Foo, Y. L.

B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, W.

G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, A.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

J. Tang, Z. Huo, S. Brittman, H. Gao, and P. Yang, “Solution-Processed Core-Shell Nanowires for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 568–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargas, D. J.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-Quantum-Well Nanowire Heterostructures for Wavelength-Controlled Lasers,” Nat. Mater. 7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/Multishell Nanowire Heterostructures as Multicolor, High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
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B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Gutierrez, H. R.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical Antenna Effect in Semiconducting Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
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G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
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C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
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K. Soderstrom, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hossain, M. M.

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. C. Y.

P. Fan, K. C. Y. Huang, L. Cao, and M. L. Brongersma, “Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 392–396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffaker, D. L.

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned Radial GaAs Nanopillar Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, Z.

J. Tang, Z. Huo, S. Brittman, H. Gao, and P. Yang, “Solution-Processed Core-Shell Nanowires for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 568–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, M.-S.

Y.-S. No, J. H. Choi, H.-S. Ee, M.-S. Hwang, K.-Y. Jeong, E.-K. Lee, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “A Double-Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Coupled to an Electrically Driven Nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 772–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y. J.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahr, N.

G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y.-S. No, J. H. Choi, H.-S. Ee, M.-S. Hwang, K.-Y. Jeong, E.-K. Lee, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “A Double-Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Coupled to an Electrically Driven Nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 772–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, B.

Jørgensen, H. I.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
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G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned Radial GaAs Nanopillar Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-Conversion Properties of Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Grown Silicon Wire-Array Photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
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T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in Core/Shell Silicon Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices through Morphological Design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, K.-D. Song, T. J. Kempa, R. W. Day, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Design of Nanowire Optical Cavities as Efficient Photon Absorbers,” ACS Nano140313143802002 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Khorasaninejad, M.

Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of input couplers for efficient silicon thin film solar absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A997–A1004 (2012).
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S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in Core/Shell Silicon Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices through Morphological Design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, K.-D. Song, T. J. Kempa, R. W. Day, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Design of Nanowire Optical Cavities as Efficient Photon Absorbers,” ACS Nano140313143802002 (2014), doi:.
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P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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Kuykendall, T.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN Nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
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F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/Multishell Nanowire Heterostructures as Multicolor, High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
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J. Yao, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, “A nanoscale combing technique for the large-scale assembly of highly aligned nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(5), 329–335 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical Properties of Individual Silicon Nanowires for Photonic Devices,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Soderstrom, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213508 (2010).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Cho, J. Bareno, Y. L. Foo, S. Hong, T. Spila, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Phosphorus Incorporation during Si(001): P Gas-source Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Effects on Growth Kinetics and Surface Morphology,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(12), 123530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (10)

L.-F. Cui, R. Ruffo, C. K. Chan, H. Peng, and Y. Cui, “Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 491–495 (2009).
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M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. No, J. H. Choi, H.-S. Ee, M.-S. Hwang, K.-Y. Jeong, E.-K. Lee, M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “A Double-Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Coupled to an Electrically Driven Nanowire LED,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 772–776 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fan, K. C. Y. Huang, L. Cao, and M. L. Brongersma, “Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 392–396 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K.-D. Song, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in Core/Shell Silicon Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices through Morphological Design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Christesen, X. Zhang, C. W. Pinion, T. A. Celano, C. J. Flynn, and J. F. Cahoon, “Design principles for photovoltaic devices based on Si nanowires with axial or radial p-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6024–6029 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned Radial GaAs Nanopillar Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/Multishell Nanowire Heterostructures as Multicolor, High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
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G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical Antenna Effect in Semiconducting Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

M. C. Plante and R. R. Lapierre, “Control of GaAs nanowire morphology and crystal structure,” Nanotechnology 19(49), 495603 (2008).
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G. Brönstrup, C. Leiterer, N. Jahr, C. Gutsche, A. Lysov, I. Regolin, W. Prost, F. J. Tegude, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “A Precise Optical Determination of Nanoscale Diameters of Semiconductor Nanowires,” Nanotechnology 22(38), 385201 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-Quantum-Well Nanowire Heterostructures for Wavelength-Controlled Lasers,” Nat. Mater. 7(9), 701–706 (2008).
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T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN Nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and Flexible Substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

J. Tang, Z. Huo, S. Brittman, H. Gao, and P. Yang, “Solution-Processed Core-Shell Nanowires for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 568–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, H. Yan, and C. M. Lieber, “A nanoscale combing technique for the large-scale assembly of highly aligned nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(5), 329–335 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Silicon Nanowires as Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Power Sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon Lasers at Deep Subwavelength Scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
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Opt. Express (5)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

T. J. Kempa, J. F. Cahoon, S.-K. Kim, R. W. Day, D. C. Bell, H.-G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial Multishell Nanowires with High-Quality Electronic Interfaces and Tunable Optical Cavities for Ultrathin Photovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1407–1412 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S.-K. Kim, K.-D. Song, T. J. Kempa, R. W. Day, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Design of Nanowire Optical Cavities as Efficient Photon Absorbers,” ACS Nano140313143802002 (2014), doi:.
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D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th ed. (CRC Press, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of a core-shell p/i/n Si NW (top) and a close-packed NW array (bottom) placed on quartz substrates. (B) TE (top) and TM polarized (bottom) absorption spectra of a film, a single NW, and a close-packed NW array each with a height of 200 nm. The peak denoted by * corresponds to the whispering-gallery mode in (C). The insets in each panel show a schematic describing the polarization direction. (C) TM absorption mode profiles of the single NW (top) at λ = 450, 470, 515, and 680 nm (left to right) and the NW array (bottom) at λ = 445, 480, 515, and 695 nm (left to right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Absorption spectra of a single NW and a NW array with circular (top) and square (bottom) cross-sectional shape. For the square NWs, a 30-nm-thick SiO2 conformal coating was introduced. The height of each NW is 200 nm. (B) Absorption spectra of a single NW and a NW array with a height of 100 nm (top) and 300 nm (bottom). The cross section of both NW structures was hexagonal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) TE (left) and TM polarized (right) absorption spectra of the NW arrays with various pitch sizes. The inset in the left panel shows a schematic of a NW array with a certain pitch size, a. (B) Snapshots of time-elapsed electric field intensity at λ = 440 nm with TE polarization (left) and λ = 445 nm with TM polarization (right) from a NW array with a = 400 nm. (C) Calculated current densities of NW arrays as a function of pitch size for TE, TM, and unpolarized (TE + TM) light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Schematics of vertically aligned (top) and cross-stacked (bottom) NW arrays. (B) TE and TM polarized absorption spectra of double-stacked NW arrays: a cross-stacked NW array and a vertically aligned NW array. Each NW element has a height of 200 nm. All simulations are for a close-packed array. (C) TM absorption mode profiles of the peaks, indicated by “a,” “b,” “1,” and “2” in (B), corresponding to wavelengths of 580, 655, 690, and 715 nm, respectively. (D) Calculated current densities of vertically stacked NW arrays, cross-stacked NW arrays, and film structures as a function of the number of stacks, i.e., film thickness. (E) Calculated internal absorption per unit NW or unit volume for four-layered vertically aligned and cross-stacked NW arrays and an 800-nm-thick film structure. The inset shows a schematic of a four-layered NW array and a film structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) TM polarized absorption spectra of a four-layered cross-stacked NW array and an 800-nm-thick) film structure. (B) TM absorption mode profiles of the four-layered cross-stacked NW array at wavelengths of 580, 620, 665, 685, 700, and 770 nm (left to right).

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