Abstract

We investigated the morphological, structural and optical properties of CdCl2-treated cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films deposited on defective graphene using a close-spaced sublimation (CSS) system. Heat treatment in the presence of CdCl2 caused recrystallization of CSS-grown CdTe over the as-deposited structures. The preferential (111) orientation of as-deposited CdTe films was randomized after post-growth CdCl2 treatment. New small grains (bumps) on the surface of CdCl2-treated CdTe films were ascribed to nucleation of the CdTe grains during the CdCl2 treatment. The properties of as-deposited and CdCl2-treated CdTe films were characterized by room temperature micro-photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Our results are useful to demonstrate a substrate configuration CdTe thin film solar cells.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Technological status of CdTe photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 278–280 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).
  4. S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Albin, S. H. Demtsu, and T. J. McMahon, “Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2659–2668 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. D. Paulson and V. Dutta, “Study of in situ CdCl2 treatment on CSS deposited CdTe films and CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 299–306 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Wu, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 803–814 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Gloeckler, I. Sankin, and Z. Zhao, “CdTe solar cells at the threshold to 20% efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1389–1393 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. E. McCandless, “Thermochemical and Kinetic Aspects of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell Processing,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposia, R. W. Birkmire, D. Lincot, R. Noufi, H. W. Schock, eds. (Cambridge, 2001), pp. H1.6.1–H1.6.12.

2014 (1)

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (4)

M. Gloeckler, I. Sankin, and Z. Zhao, “CdTe solar cells at the threshold to 20% efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1389–1393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Technological status of CdTe photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 278–280 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. S. Albin, S. H. Demtsu, and T. J. McMahon, “Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2659–2668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 803–814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

2000 (3)

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Paulson and V. Dutta, “Study of in situ CdCl2 treatment on CSS deposited CdTe films and CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 299–306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albin, D. S.

D. S. Albin, S. H. Demtsu, and T. J. McMahon, “Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2659–2668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Al-Jassim, M. M.

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, M.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S.

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

Bätzner, D. L.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beier, J.

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blösch, P.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosio, A.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, L.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Britt, J.

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buecheler, S.

L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Technological status of CdTe photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 278–280 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campo, M. D.

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Canevari, V.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, E.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirila, A.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chun, S.

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Demtsu, S. H.

D. S. Albin, S. H. Demtsu, and T. J. McMahon, “Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2659–2668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dhere, R. G.

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Döbeli, M.

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durose, K.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durouse, K.

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, V.

P. D. Paulson and V. Dutta, “Study of in situ CdCl2 treatment on CSS deposited CdTe films and CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 299–306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fella, C. M.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferekides, C.

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferekides, C. S.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, I.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gessert, T. A.

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

Gloeckler, M.

M. Gloeckler, I. Sankin, and Z. Zhao, “CdTe solar cells at the threshold to 20% efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1389–1393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gretener, C.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagendorfer, H.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halliday, D. P.

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Henollosa, M. A.

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, T.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kazmeski, L. L.

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khrypunov, G.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

King, D. E.

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

Kranz, L.

L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Technological status of CdTe photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 278–280 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurdesau, F.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

La Mattina, F.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, D. H.

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacDougal, M. H.

S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Major, J. D.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Marinskiy, D.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, T. J.

D. S. Albin, S. H. Demtsu, and T. J. McMahon, “Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2659–2668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morel, D. L.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moutinho, H. R.

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishiwaki, S.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palekis, V.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paulson, P. D.

P. D. Paulson and V. Dutta, “Study of in situ CdCl2 treatment on CSS deposited CdTe films and CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 299–306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrenoud, J.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, L.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pianezzi, F.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ringel, S. A.

S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rohatgi, A.

S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, A.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, N.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sankin, I.

M. Gloeckler, I. Sankin, and Z. Zhao, “CdTe solar cells at the threshold to 20% efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1389–1393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, R.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvaraj, P.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheldon, P.

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

Smith, A. W.

S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tedeschi, R.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Terheggen, M.

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tetali, B.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A. N.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Technological status of CdTe photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 278–280 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trefny, J. U.

B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uhl, A. R.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viswanathan, V.

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. L.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D. L.

B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 803–814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

Yan, Y.

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

Yang, G.

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

M. Gloeckler, I. Sankin, and Z. Zhao, “CdTe solar cells at the threshold to 20% efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1389–1393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zogg, H.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zoppi, G.

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovolt. (1)

M. Gloeckler, I. Sankin, and Z. Zhao, “CdTe solar cells at the threshold to 20% efficiency,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1389–1393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

X. Wu, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, D. E. King, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, and P. Sheldon, “Interdiffusion of CdS and Zn2SnO4 layers and its application in CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4564–4569 (2001).

S. A. Ringel, A. W. Smith, M. H. MacDougal, and A. Rohatgi, “The effects of CdCl2 on the electronic properties of molecular‐beam epitaxially grown CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 881–889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

B. Qi, D. Kim, D. L. Williamson, and J. U. Trefny, “Effects of postdeposition heat-treatment on morphology and microstructure of CdTe grown by electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(2), 517–523 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, and L. L. Kazmeski, “Investigation of induced recrystallization and stress in close-spaced sublimated and radio-frequency magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(4), 1793–1798 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat Commun 4, 2306 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy (1)

X. Wu, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 803–814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

B. L. Williams, J. D. Major, L. Bowen, L. Phillips, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, and K. Durose, “Challenges and prospects for developing CdS/CdTe substrate solar cells on Mo foils,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 124, 31–38 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdesau, M. Arnold, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3407–3415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Kranz, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Technological status of CdTe photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 278–280 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (6)

D. L. Bätzner, A. Romeo, M. Terheggen, M. Döbeli, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Stability aspects in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 536–543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Paulson and V. Dutta, “Study of in situ CdCl2 treatment on CSS deposited CdTe films and CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 299–306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hernández-Henollosa, D. P. Halliday, K. Durouse, M. D. Campo, and J. Beier, “Photoluminescence studies of CdS/CdTe solar cells treated with oxygen,” Thin Solid Films 431–432, 176–180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Albin, S. H. Demtsu, and T. J. McMahon, “Film thickness and chemical processing effects on the stability of cadmium telluride solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2659–2668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi, and V. Canevari, “Back contacts to CSS CdS/CdTe solar cells and stability of performances,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 327–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Ferekides, D. Marinskiy, V. Viswanathan, B. Tetali, V. Palekis, P. Selvaraj, and D. L. Morel, “High efficiency CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 520–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. E. McCandless, “Thermochemical and Kinetic Aspects of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell Processing,” in Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposia, R. W. Birkmire, D. Lincot, R. Noufi, H. W. Schock, eds. (Cambridge, 2001), pp. H1.6.1–H1.6.12.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene/SiO2/Si substrate and the post-growth CdCl2 treatment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopy images of the CdTe surface after the post-growth CdCl2 treatment for (a) 15 min, (b) 30 min, (c) 60 min and (d) 90 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscopy images of CdTe thin films that were CdCl2-treated for 90 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) X-ray diffraction (XRD) data before and after various duration of CdCl2 treatment (b) normalized XRD peak ratios (c) full width at half maximum of (111) and (220) XRD peaks at different CdCl2 treatment times.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Micro-Raman spectra at room temperature before and after the post-growth CdCl2 treatments.

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