Abstract

As the performance of photovoltaic cells approaches the Shockley-Queisser limit, appropriate schemes are needed to minimize the losses without compromising the current performance. In this paper we propose a planar absorber-mirror light trapping structure where a conventional mirror is replaced by a meta-mirror with asymmetric light scattering properties. The meta-mirror is tailored to have reflection in asymmetric modes that stay outside the escape cone of the dielectric, hence trapping light with unit probability. Ideally, the meta-mirror can be designed to have such light trapping for any angle of incidence onto the absorber-mirror structure. We illustrate the concept by using a simple gap-plasmon meta-mirror. Even though the response of the mirror is non-ideal with the unwanted scattering modes reducing the light absorption, we observe an order of magnitude enhancement compared to single pass absorption in the absorber. The bandwidth of the enhancement can be matched with the range of wavelengths close to the solar cell absorber band-edge where improved light absorption is required.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
  5. M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).
  7. L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun, “Broadband absorption enhancement in randomly positioned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1884–1886 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Jeong, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 2950 (2013).
  13. V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. Wang, M. R. Khan, M. Lundstrom, and P. Bermel, “Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A344–A358 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large Integrated Absorption Enhancement in Plasmonic Solar Cells by Combining Metallic Gratings and Antireflection Coatings,” Nano Lett. 11, 2195–2201 (2010).
  17. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
  30. Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Larouche and D. R. Smith, “Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2391–2393 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2013 (7)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).

S. Jeong, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 2950 (2013).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Larouche and D. R. Smith, “Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2391–2393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. G. Du, C. H. Kam, H. V. Demir, H. Y. Yu, and X. W. Sun, “Broadband absorption enhancement in randomly positioned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large Integrated Absorption Enhancement in Plasmonic Solar Cells by Combining Metallic Gratings and Antireflection Coatings,” Nano Lett. 11, 2195–2201 (2010).

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M. M.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).

Agrawal, M.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alam, M. A.

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).

Albrektsen, O.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).

Anantram, M. P.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).

Aoust, G.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large Integrated Absorption Enhancement in Plasmonic Solar Cells by Combining Metallic Gratings and Antireflection Coatings,” Nano Lett. 11, 2195–2201 (2010).

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Basu Mallick, S.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, M. Lundstrom, and P. Bermel, “Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A344–A358 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Black, C.

B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).

Blanchard, R.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.-C.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-W.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

S. Jeong, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 2950 (2013).

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

Du, Q. G.

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, J. L.

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Q.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Z.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, M.-H.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.-C.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-H.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jao, C.-Y.

V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 2950 (2013).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juan, T.-K.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kam, C. H.

Karim, K. S.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kayes, B. M.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. R.

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, M. Lundstrom, and P. Bermel, “Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A344–A358 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochergin, V.

V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kung, W.-T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larouche, S.

Lee, J.-Y.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, C. Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, V.

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, M.

Lundstrom, M. S.

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S. B.

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

S. Jeong, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 2950 (2013).

Munday, J. N.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large Integrated Absorption Enhancement in Plasmonic Solar Cells by Combining Metallic Gratings and Antireflection Coatings,” Nano Lett. 11, 2195–2201 (2010).

Neely, L.

V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pors, A.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I. P.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, B.

B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).

Robinson, H. D.

V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sergeant, N. P.

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

Tan, H. R.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.-M.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, M. Lundstrom, and P. Bermel, “Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A344–A358 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-W.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H. Y.

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. W.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, R.

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, and Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M.-H. Hsu, P. Yu, J.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, C.-W. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and C.-W. Chu, “Balanced carrier transport in organic solar cells employing embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Kochergin, L. Neely, C.-Y. Jao, and H. D. Robinson, “Aluminum plasmonic nanostructures for improved absorption in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (2)

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

X. Wang, M. R. Khan, J. L. Gray, M. A. Alam, and M. S. Lundstrom, “Design of GaAs Solar Cells Operating Close to the Shockley-Queisser Limit,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(2), 737–744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts With Optical Antenna Metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4700423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Photovoltaics (1)

B. Ray, M. R. Khan, C. Black, and M. A. Alam, “Nanostructured Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells: Analysis and Design Fundamentals,” IEEE. J. Photovoltaics 3, 318–329 (2012).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

MRS Bull. (1)

S. Basu Mallick, N. P. Sergeant, M. Agrawal, J.-Y. Lee, and P. Peumans, “Coherent Light Trapping in Thin-Film Photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 453–460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large Integrated Absorption Enhancement in Plasmonic Solar Cells by Combining Metallic Gratings and Antireflection Coatings,” Nano Lett. 11, 2195–2201 (2010).

Nat Commun (1)

S. Jeong, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 2950 (2013).

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China Inf. Sci. (1)

Y. Luo, R. Zhao, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Harvesting light with transformation optics,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 56(12), 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (2)

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).

Science (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The concept of light trapping is shown. A dielectric with refractive index n is placed on top of a meta-mirror which follows the generalized Snell’s law of reflection. The meta-mirror is shown here as a combination of a perfect mirror and a gradient phase adding interface layer. The ideal path for the light ray is shown. (b) The red line shows the law of reflection at the back meta-mirror. The black line represents specular reflection for total internal reflection at the top dielectric-air interface. The shaded region represents the escape cone angles. The blue circles are the incident angles at the meta-mirror after multiple bounces for the example illustrated in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The meta-surface mirror configuration embedded in the dielectric. (b) Scattered H y field profile for: (top) θ i = 0 ,     λ = 600 nm , (middle) θ i = 15 , λ = 600 nm , and (bottom) θ i = 0 ,   λ = 700 nm . (c) The transfer characteristics ( θ r vs. θ i ) are shown as a spectrum of scattered H y field amplitudes at λ = 600 nm. (d) The scattered H y field amplitudes for different θ r as a function of λ is shown (at θ i = 0 ). Here, the mode marked ( + 1) corresponds to the generalized Snell’s law of reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The light trapping scheme for thin film solar cell is shown using the meta-surface mirror. (b) The black line represents the absorption in the structure with a conventional mirror at the back. The blue line in (b) shows the absorption in the absorber layer for structures in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The graded index mirror configuration embedded in the dielectric. (b) The transfer characteristics ( θ r vs. θ i ) are shown as a spectrum of scattered H y field amplitudes at λ = 600 nm. (c) The scattered H y field amplitudes for different θ r as a function of λ is shown (at θ i = 0 ). Here, the mode marked ( + 1) corresponds to the generalized Snell’s law of reflection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The light trapping scheme for thin film solar cell is shown using the graded index mirror. The ARC layer on top of the dielectric is used to minimize reflection of the incident light. (b) The black line shows the absorption in the structure with a conventional mirror at the back. The blue line show the absorption in the absorber layer for structures in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Sub-cell of the meta-mirror periodic structure. The various lengths have been defined here. Varying metal strip widths   W are used to form the supercell (single period) of the meta-mirror. (b) The phase added by super-cells as a function of W at normal incidence (blue solid line). 10 components/sub-cells are used in a supercell (red circles). These components have W values as listed in the table (bottom). (c) The 10 sub-cells create a linearly varying (relative) phase profile for normal incidence ( θ i = 0 ), which is shown for two periods as red circles. However, for θ i = 40 , the linearity of the phase profile is disrupted (see blue crosses).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design parameters for the graded index mirror structure.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k x( r ) = k x( i ) +Δ k x .
k 0 nsin θ r = k 0 nsin θ i +Δ k x
or,    θ r = sin 1 ( sin θ i + Δ k x k 0 n )= sin 1 ( sin θ i +δ )
sin θ r1 =sin θ i1 +δsin θ C or,   sin θ C +δsin θ C or,   δ2sin θ C  
Γ x = 2π Δ k x = 2π k 0 nδ λ 0 2
θ r ( +1 ) = sin 1 ( δ )= sin 1 ( Δ k x nk )= sin 1 ( 2π/ Γ x n2π/λ )= sin 1 ( λ/n Γ x ).
( Δn  N S )× t GI ×2= λ 0 .
Δn= λ 0 2 t GI × 1 N S ,
n GI = n L +βΔn.

Metrics