Abstract

A high-performance flip-chip light-emitting diode (FCLED) with a Ni/Ag metallic film as high reflectivity mirror (92.67%) of p-type electrode was successfully fabricated. The effect of geometric electrode patterns on the blue InGaN/GaN LEDs was investigated and analyzed qualitatively its current spreading in the active region. With different electrode patterns, these devices were experimented and simulated by simple electrical circuits in order to confirm its current-voltage characteristics and light emission pattern. It was found that the forward voltages of these FCLEDs were about 3.6 V (@350 mA). The light output power of FCLEDs with circle-round type electrode was 368 mW at an injection current of 700 mA. From these optoelectronic measurement and thermal infrared images, we proposed some design methodologies for improved current spreading, light output power, droop efficiency and thermal performance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Cao, S. Li, R. Hu, S. Zhou, Y. Sun, Z. Gan, and S. Liu, “Effects of current crowding on light extraction efficiency of conventional GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25381–25388 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Oh, P. C. Su, Y. J. Yoon, S. Cho, J. H. Oh, T. Y. Seong, and K. K. Kim, “Nano-patterned dual-layer ITO electrode of high brightness blue light emitting diodes using maskless wet etching,” Opt. Express 21(S6), A970–A976 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. M. Hwang and J. I. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, C.

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

Chang, S. J.

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

Chen, J. C.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

Chen, Z.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

Cicek, E.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z.

Gautier, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gilstrap, R. A.

Hasan, M. F.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

Huang, S.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hung, S. C.

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

Hwang, S. M.

S. M. Hwang and J. I. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwu, F. S.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Khan, J.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, K. T.

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Lin, W. Y.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Luo, H.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, R.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menkara, H.

Minkara, M.

Morris, T.

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. H.

Oh, S.

Pai, S. F.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahnema, B.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

Schubert, E. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, G. J.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. I.

H. Y. Ryu and J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hwang and J. I. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, P. C.

Summers, C. J.

Sun, W. H.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Sun, Y. X.

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vashaei, Z.

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, B. K.

Wang, G.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xian, Y.

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yadav, P.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y. J.

Zhang, B.

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A765–A776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, P.

Zhao, Y.

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Y. Cho, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, P. Yadav, M. F. Hasan, J. Khan, V. Adivarahan, H. P. Maruska, W. H. Sun, and M. A. Khan, “Thermal analysis of flip-chip packaged 280 nm nitride-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 2201109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. X. Sun, W. S. Chen, S. C. Hung, K. T. Lam, C. H. Liu, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based power flip-chip LEDs with an internal ESD protection diode on Cu sub-mount,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 33(2), 433–437 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

B. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. Xian, B. Zhang, and G. Wang, “Thermal study of high-power nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(12), 3375–3382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hwang and J. I. Shim, “A method for current spreading analysis and electrode pattern design in light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(5), 1123–1128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

S. Huang, B. Fan, Z. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Luo, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 266–271 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H836–H840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

There were three kinds of n-electrode patterns of FCLEDs: (a) branch-solid, (b) branch-dashed, and (c) circle-round, respectively. The schematic device structures of the FCLEDs were shown in (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectra of the metal mirror (Ni/Ag) with different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)-(c) Plane-view surface images of FCLEDs with designed electrode patterns after lapping and polishing the sapphire substrate. (d)-(f) SpeCLED simulation of the current density distribution with different electrode patterns in the active layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(c) Measured light emission images and (d)-(f) calculated light intensity distribution in the all LED chips of 1150 μm × 1150 μm at an injection current of 350 mA for the designed electrode patterns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IR camera images of FCLED samples with the designed electrode patterns for an injection current of 350mA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light output power and wall-plug efficiency as function of injection current of FCLEDs with the designed electrode patterns.

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