Abstract

We report design methods for achieving near-unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays, illustrated by results for visible absorption in GaAs nanowires on Si substrates. Sparse (<5% fill fraction) nanowire arrays achieve near unity absorption at wire resonant wavelengths due to coupling into ‘leaky’ radial waveguide modes of individual wires and wire-wire scattering processes. From a detailed conceptual development of radial mode resonant absorption, we demonstrate two specific geometric design approaches to achieve near unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays: (i) introducing multiple wire radii within a small unit cell array to increase the number of resonant wavelengths, yielding a 15% absorption enhancement relative to a uniform nanowire array and (ii) tapering of nanowires to introduce a continuum of diameters and thus resonant wavelengths excited within a single wire, yielding an 18% absorption enhancement over a uniform nanowire array.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19371–19381 (2009).
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  6. L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).
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  9. S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
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  25. A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(023825), 1–15 (2008).
  26. B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Yu and L. Cao, “Coupled leaky mode theory for light absorption in 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13847–13856 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. M. Chang, J. Shieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Subwavelength antireflective Si nanostructures fabricated by using the self-assembled silver metal-nanomask,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(18), 8983–8987 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 214–218 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. H. Cansizoglu, M. F. Cansizoglu, M. Finckenor, and T. Karabacak, “Optical absorption properties of semiconducting nanostructures with different shapes,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 1(2), 158–166 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic cristal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Exp. 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. X. Lin, N. F. Huang, and M. L. Povinelli, “Effect of aperiodicity on the broadhand reflection of silicon nanorod structures for photovoltaics,” Opt. Exp. 20(S1), A125–A132 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Nanowire array photovoltaics: radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(173902), 1–4 (2012).
  42. H. Alaeian, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, “Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(024006), 1–6 (2012).
  43. J. Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S. W. Jee, H. D. Um, K. T. Park, and J. H. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A286–A292 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  45. P. Mohan, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Controlled growth of highly uniform, axial/radial direction-defined, individually addressable InP nanowire arrays,” Nanotech. 16(12), 2903–2907 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2014

M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Hong, X. Rusli, H. Wang, H. Zheng, and H. Y. Yu, “Design guidelines for slanting silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(084303), 1–6 (2013).

S. Patchett, M. Khorasaninejad, O. Nixon, and S. S. Saini, “Effective index approximation for ordered silicon nanowire arrays,” JOSA B 30(2), 306–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Cansizoglu, M. F. Cansizoglu, M. Finckenor, and T. Karabacak, “Optical absorption properties of semiconducting nanostructures with different shapes,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 1(2), 158–166 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic cristal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Exp. 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

C. X. Lin, N. F. Huang, and M. L. Povinelli, “Effect of aperiodicity on the broadhand reflection of silicon nanorod structures for photovoltaics,” Opt. Exp. 20(S1), A125–A132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Nanowire array photovoltaics: radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(173902), 1–4 (2012).

H. Alaeian, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, “Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(024006), 1–6 (2012).

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu and L. Cao, “Coupled leaky mode theory for light absorption in 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13847–13856 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deinega and S. John, “Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(074327), 1–7 (2012).

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3(692), 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

R. R. LaPierre, “Theoretical conversion efficiency of a two-junction III-V nanowire on Si solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(014310), 1–6 (2011).

G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chang, J. Shieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Subwavelength antireflective Si nanostructures fabricated by using the self-assembled silver metal-nanomask,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(18), 8983–8987 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S. W. Jee, H. D. Um, K. T. Park, and J. H. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(S3Suppl 3), A286–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19371–19381 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

J. Kupec and B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, wav propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(12), 10399–10410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(023825), 1–15 (2008).

2007

L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, C. Chase, N. P. Kobayashi, C. Chang-Hasnain, and S. Crankshaw, “Critical diameter for III-V nanowires grown on lattice mismatched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(043115), 1–3 (2007).

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114302), 1–11 (2005).

E. Ertekin, P. A. Greaney, D. C. Chrzan, and T. D. Sands, “Equilibrium limits of coherency in strained nanowire heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114325), 1–10 (2005).

J. Noborisaka, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free growth of GaAs nanowires by selective-area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(213102), 1–3 (2005).

P. Mohan, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Controlled growth of highly uniform, axial/radial direction-defined, individually addressable InP nanowire arrays,” Nanotech. 16(12), 2903–2907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1982

Alaeian, H.

H. Alaeian, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, “Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(024006), 1–6 (2012).

Alarcon-Lladó, E.

M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Algra, R. E.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asatryan, A. A.

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Nanowire array photovoltaics: radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(173902), 1–4 (2012).

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atre, A. C.

H. Alaeian, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, “Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(024006), 1–6 (2012).

Atwater, H. A.

D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic cristal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Exp. 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114302), 1–11 (2005).

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barten, T.

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B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
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L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
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L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
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L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
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D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic cristal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Exp. 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
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H. Cansizoglu, M. F. Cansizoglu, M. Finckenor, and T. Karabacak, “Optical absorption properties of semiconducting nanostructures with different shapes,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 1(2), 158–166 (2013).
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Y. Yu and L. Cao, “Coupled leaky mode theory for light absorption in 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13847–13856 (2012).
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L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
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L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
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T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
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Y. M. Chang, J. Shieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Subwavelength antireflective Si nanostructures fabricated by using the self-assembled silver metal-nanomask,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(18), 8983–8987 (2011).
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Chase, C.

L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, C. Chase, N. P. Kobayashi, C. Chang-Hasnain, and S. Crankshaw, “Critical diameter for III-V nanowires grown on lattice mismatched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(043115), 1–3 (2007).

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L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
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S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
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E. Ertekin, P. A. Greaney, D. C. Chrzan, and T. D. Sands, “Equilibrium limits of coherency in strained nanowire heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114325), 1–10 (2005).

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L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, C. Chase, N. P. Kobayashi, C. Chang-Hasnain, and S. Crankshaw, “Critical diameter for III-V nanowires grown on lattice mismatched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(043115), 1–3 (2007).

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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(023825), 1–15 (2008).

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L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
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M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
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Crankshaw, S.

L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, C. Chase, N. P. Kobayashi, C. Chang-Hasnain, and S. Crankshaw, “Critical diameter for III-V nanowires grown on lattice mismatched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(043115), 1–3 (2007).

Crozier, K. B.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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Cui, Y.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Dalmau-Mallorquí, A.

M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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Dapkus, P. D.

S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
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Day, R. W.

S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
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Deinega, A.

A. Deinega and S. John, “Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(074327), 1–7 (2012).

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M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
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S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
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H. Alaeian, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, “Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(024006), 1–6 (2012).

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B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Nanowire array photovoltaics: radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(173902), 1–4 (2012).

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
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M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
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Ellenbogen, T.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
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E. Ertekin, P. A. Greaney, D. C. Chrzan, and T. D. Sands, “Equilibrium limits of coherency in strained nanowire heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114325), 1–10 (2005).

Fan, P.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
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L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
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Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Finckenor, M.

H. Cansizoglu, M. F. Cansizoglu, M. Finckenor, and T. Karabacak, “Optical absorption properties of semiconducting nanostructures with different shapes,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 1(2), 158–166 (2013).
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G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
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Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
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S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
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J. Noborisaka, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free growth of GaAs nanowires by selective-area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(213102), 1–3 (2005).

P. Mohan, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Controlled growth of highly uniform, axial/radial direction-defined, individually addressable InP nanowire arrays,” Nanotech. 16(12), 2903–2907 (2005).
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G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
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S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
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E. Ertekin, P. A. Greaney, D. C. Chrzan, and T. D. Sands, “Equilibrium limits of coherency in strained nanowire heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114325), 1–10 (2005).

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
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G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
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L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

Guo, Z.

Heiss, M.

M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
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Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
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L. Hong, X. Rusli, H. Wang, H. Zheng, and H. Y. Yu, “Design guidelines for slanting silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(084303), 1–6 (2013).

Horowitz, K. A. W.

D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic cristal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Exp. 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
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Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
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C. X. Lin, N. F. Huang, and M. L. Povinelli, “Effect of aperiodicity on the broadhand reflection of silicon nanorod structures for photovoltaics,” Opt. Exp. 20(S1), A125–A132 (2012).
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G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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Jamshidi, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janssen, O. T. A.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Jee, S. W.

John, S.

A. Deinega and S. John, “Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(074327), 1–7 (2012).

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(023825), 1–15 (2008).

Juang, J. Y.

Y. M. Chang, J. Shieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Subwavelength antireflective Si nanostructures fabricated by using the self-assembled silver metal-nanomask,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(18), 8983–8987 (2011).
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Jung, J. Y.

Kapadia, R.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Karabacak, T.

H. Cansizoglu, M. F. Cansizoglu, M. Finckenor, and T. Karabacak, “Optical absorption properties of semiconducting nanostructures with different shapes,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 1(2), 158–166 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
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S. Patchett, M. Khorasaninejad, O. Nixon, and S. S. Saini, “Effective index approximation for ordered silicon nanowire arrays,” JOSA B 30(2), 306–313 (2013).
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S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N. P.

L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, C. Chase, N. P. Kobayashi, C. Chang-Hasnain, and S. Crankshaw, “Critical diameter for III-V nanowires grown on lattice mismatched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(043115), 1–3 (2007).

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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

Li, X.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

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S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
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G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
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B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
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L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
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B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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S. Patchett, M. Khorasaninejad, O. Nixon, and S. S. Saini, “Effective index approximation for ordered silicon nanowire arrays,” JOSA B 30(2), 306–313 (2013).
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T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
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T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

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P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3(692), 692 (2012).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
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B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Nanowire array photovoltaics: radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(173902), 1–4 (2012).

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, “Modal analysis of enhanced absorption in silicon nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1067–A1081 (2011).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3(692), 692 (2012).
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K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
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L. Hong, X. Rusli, H. Wang, H. Zheng, and H. Y. Yu, “Design guidelines for slanting silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(084303), 1–6 (2013).

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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
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K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
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K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, P. S.

G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

Wu, M.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

Yu, H. Y.

L. Hong, X. Rusli, H. Wang, H. Zheng, and H. Y. Yu, “Design guidelines for slanting silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(084303), 1–6 (2013).

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

Zhang, X.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

Zheng, H.

L. Hong, X. Rusli, H. Wang, H. Zheng, and H. Y. Yu, “Design guidelines for slanting silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(084303), 1–6 (2013).

Zhou, C.

S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Grzela, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong geometrical dependence of the absorption of light in arrays of semiconductor nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2316–2323 (2011).
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Adv. Opt. Mat.

H. Cansizoglu, M. F. Cansizoglu, M. Finckenor, and T. Karabacak, “Optical absorption properties of semiconducting nanostructures with different shapes,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 1(2), 158–166 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. C. Chuang, M. Moewe, C. Chase, N. P. Kobayashi, C. Chang-Hasnain, and S. Crankshaw, “Critical diameter for III-V nanowires grown on lattice mismatched substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(043115), 1–3 (2007).

J. Noborisaka, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free growth of GaAs nanowires by selective-area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(213102), 1–3 (2005).

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(243113), 1–3 (2009).

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trappig in high efficiency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(143116), 1–3 (2011).

B. C. P. Sturmberg, K. B. Dossou, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, R. C. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Nanowire array photovoltaics: radial disorder versus design for optimal efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(173902), 1–4 (2012).

Energy Environ. Sci.

S. Hu, C. Chi, K. T. Fountaine, M. Yao, H. A. Atwater, P. D. Dapkus, N. S. Lewis, and C. Zhou, “Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array photoanodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(6), 1879–1890 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Deinega and S. John, “Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(074327), 1–7 (2012).

L. Hong, X. Rusli, H. Wang, H. Zheng, and H. Y. Yu, “Design guidelines for slanting silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(084303), 1–6 (2013).

B. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114302), 1–11 (2005).

R. R. LaPierre, “Theoretical conversion efficiency of a two-junction III-V nanowire on Si solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(014310), 1–6 (2011).

E. Ertekin, P. A. Greaney, D. C. Chrzan, and T. D. Sands, “Equilibrium limits of coherency in strained nanowire heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(114325), 1–10 (2005).

J. Opt.

H. Alaeian, A. C. Atre, and J. A. Dionne, “Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(024006), 1–6 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Chem. C

Y. M. Chang, J. Shieh, and J. Y. Juang, “Subwavelength antireflective Si nanostructures fabricated by using the self-assembled silver metal-nanomask,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(18), 8983–8987 (2011).
[CrossRef]

JOSA B

S. Patchett, M. Khorasaninejad, O. Nixon, and S. S. Saini, “Effective index approximation for ordered silicon nanowire arrays,” JOSA B 30(2), 306–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

G. Grzela, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, T. Barten, Y. Fontana, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Nanowire antenna emission,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5481–5486 (2012).
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G. Mariani, P. S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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T. Mårtensson, P. Carlberg, M. Borgstrom, L. Montelius, W. Seifert, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 699–702 (2004).
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S. K. Kim, R. W. Day, J. F. Cahoon, T. J. Kempa, K. D. Song, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Tuning Light Absorption in core/shell silicon nanowire photovoltaic devices through morphological design,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4971–4976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y. L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotech.

P. Mohan, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Controlled growth of highly uniform, axial/radial direction-defined, individually addressable InP nanowire arrays,” Nanotech. 16(12), 2903–2907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

M. Heiss, E. Russo-Averchi, A. Dalmau-Mallorquí, G. Tütüncüoğlu, F. Matteini, D. Rüffer, S. Conesa-Boj, O. Demichel, E. Alarcon-Lladó, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “III-V nanowire arrays: growth and light interaction,” Nanotechnology 25(1), 014015 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3(692), 692 (2012).
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Nat. Mater.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Opt. Exp.

J. Kupec and B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, wav propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(12), 10399–10410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic cristal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Exp. 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Lin, N. F. Huang, and M. L. Povinelli, “Effect of aperiodicity on the broadhand reflection of silicon nanorod structures for photovoltaics,” Opt. Exp. 20(S1), A125–A132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(023825), 1–15 (2008).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption vs. wavelength for a 150 nm planar layer of GaAs (black line) compared to a 5% fill fraction uniform array of GaAs nanowires with radii of 65 nm and heights of 3 µm (red line) with an inset demonstrating a radial cross section of power absorption for the TM11 mode at its resonant wavelength of 675 nm

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the mechanism of scattering and coupling into resonant leaky radial optical waveguide modes in the nanowire array with multiple radii; (b) Aerial view of one unit cell of the array with multiple nanowire radii and schematic of radial modes in nanowires of various radii, labeled with their TM11 resonant wavelengths; (c) Absorption vs. wavelength for each individual wire in the optimized multi-radii wire array depicted in (a) with arrows indicating corresponding curve/peak and wire radius

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Array of optimized GaAs truncated nanocones with tip radii of 40 nm, base radii of 100 nm and heights of 3 µm, labeling x, y, and z dimensions and indicating the vertical cross section shown in (c); (b) Absorption in a single truncated nanocone integrated over x and y, its radial cross section, (red indicating strong absorption and blue indicating little to no absorption) as a function of both wavelength and position along the z axis (labeled in a); (c) xz (vertical) cross sections of absorption for a single nanocone illuminated at wavelengths of 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 nm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Diagrams of sparse arrays of (i) uniform nanowires with radii of 65 nm, (ii) nanowires with varying radii (45, 55, 65, 75 nm) with inset of aerial layout, and (iii) truncated nanocones with tip radii of 40 nm and base radii of 100 nm; (b) Cross sections of normalized power absorbed at the TM11 resonance at 675nm for (i) a 65nm radius nanowire in a uniform array, (ii) a truncated nanocone at r = 65 nm and (iii) a 65 nm radius nanowire in the multi-radii nanowire array (black circles outline the edges of the wire); (c) Simulated absorption vs. wavelength for the geometrically-optimized GaAs arrays of truncated nanocones shown in (a) and the planar equivalent thickness (t = 150 nm). All nanostructured arrays are 3 µm in height, have a 5% fill fraction, sit on top of an infinite silicon substrate and are embedded in 30 nm of silica (not shown).

Equations (1)

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( 1 k 1 2 k 2 2 ) 2 ( β m k 0 a ) 2 = ( n 1 2 k 1 J m ' ( k 1 a ) J m ( k 1 a ) n 2 2 k 2 H m ' ( k 2 a ) H m ( k 2 a ) ) ( 1 k 1 J m ' ( k 1 a ) J m ( k 1 a ) 1 k 2 H m ' ( k 2 a ) H m ( k 2 a ) )

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