Abstract

A high efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cell was designed with a reduced CdTe absorber-layer thickness and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) as an optical reflector and a ZnTe layer as back surface field (BSF) layer. Simulation results showed that with combination of DBR and BSF layers and 0.3 µm thick CdTe, the conversion efficiency was increased about 3.2% as compared with a reference cell (with 4 µm thick CdTe layer). It was also shown that the efficiency can be increased up to 6.02% by using a long carrier lifetime in the absorber layer. Under global AM 1.5G conditions, the proposed cell structure had an open-circuit voltage of 1.062 V, a short-circuit current density of 24.64 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 81.3%, corresponding to a total area conversion efficiency of 21.02%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

N. R. Paudel, K. A. Wieland, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultrathin CdS/CdTe solar cells by sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 105, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

2011 (6)

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kanevce and T. A. Gessert, “Optimizing CdTe solar cell performance: impact of variations in minority-carrier lifetime and carrier density profile,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics. 1(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kosyachenko, A. I. Savchuk, and E. V. Grushko, “Dependence of efficiency of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on parameters of absorber layer and barrier structure,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2386–2391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. Amin, K. Sopian, and M. Konagai, “Numerical modeling of CdS/CdTe and CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells as a function of CdTe thickness,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(13), 1202–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Aramoto, H. Ohyama, and S. Kumazawa, “16.0% efficient thin film CdS-CdTe solar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6304–6305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Albin, D. S.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Amin, N.

N. Amin, K. Sopian, and M. Konagai, “Numerical modeling of CdS/CdTe and CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells as a function of CdTe thickness,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(13), 1202–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aramoto, T.

T. Aramoto, H. Ohyama, and S. Kumazawa, “16.0% efficient thin film CdS-CdTe solar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6304–6305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ares, O.

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arés, O.

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

Asher, S.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Banai, R.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, S.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergeson, J. D.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blissett, C.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bosio, A.

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Britt, J.

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buurma, C.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, J. M.

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colegrove, E.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Compaan, A. D.

N. R. Paudel, K. A. Wieland, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultrathin CdS/CdTe solar cells by sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 105, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DeHart, C.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Dhere, R.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dhere, R. G.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Drouard, E.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duda, A.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El Daif, O.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ellsworth, J.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferekides, C.

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferekides, C. S.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gessert, T.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gessert, T. A.

A. Kanevce and T. A. Gessert, “Optimizing CdTe solar cell performance: impact of variations in minority-carrier lifetime and carrier density profile,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics. 1(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Gilmore, C.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gjessing, J.

Gomard, G.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grushko, E. V.

L. A. Kosyachenko, A. I. Savchuk, and E. V. Grushko, “Dependence of efficiency of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on parameters of absorber layer and barrier structure,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2386–2391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kanevce, A.

A. Kanevce and T. A. Gessert, “Optimizing CdTe solar cell performance: impact of variations in minority-carrier lifetime and carrier density profile,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics. 1(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keane, J. C.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Keshmiri, S. H.

S. Khosroabadi and S. H. Keshmiri, “Design of high performance CdS/CdTe solar cells by optimization of step doping and thickness of the CdTe absorption layer,” in Proceedings of 21th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE) (Mashad, Iran, 2013), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Khosroabadi, S.

S. Khosroabadi and S. H. Keshmiri, “Design of high performance CdS/CdTe solar cells by optimization of step doping and thickness of the CdTe absorption layer,” in Proceedings of 21th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE) (Mashad, Iran, 2013), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Konagai, M.

N. Amin, K. Sopian, and M. Konagai, “Numerical modeling of CdS/CdTe and CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells as a function of CdTe thickness,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(13), 1202–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kosyachenko, L. A.

L. A. Kosyachenko, A. I. Savchuk, and E. V. Grushko, “Dependence of efficiency of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on parameters of absorber layer and barrier structure,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2386–2391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumazawa, S.

T. Aramoto, H. Ohyama, and S. Kumazawa, “16.0% efficient thin film CdS-CdTe solar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6304–6305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lemiti, M.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levi, D. H.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Lunt, R. R.

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luxembourg, S. L.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marstein, E. S.

Meng, X.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morel, D.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morley, M.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, H.

T. Aramoto, H. Ohyama, and S. Kumazawa, “16.0% efficient thin film CdS-CdTe solar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6304–6305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paudel, N. R.

N. R. Paudel, K. A. Wieland, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultrathin CdS/CdTe solar cells by sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 105, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peña, J. L.

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Razykov, T. M.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rejon, V.

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rios-Flores, A.

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, N.

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savchuk, A. I.

L. A. Kosyachenko, A. I. Savchuk, and E. V. Grushko, “Dependence of efficiency of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on parameters of absorber layer and barrier structure,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2386–2391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheldon, P.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Sivananthan, S.

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sopian, K.

N. Amin, K. Sopian, and M. Konagai, “Numerical modeling of CdS/CdTe and CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells as a function of CdTe thickness,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(13), 1202–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefanakos, E.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sudbø, A.

Topic, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ullal, H. S.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Upadhyaya, H. M.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, K. A.

N. R. Paudel, K. A. Wieland, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultrathin CdS/CdTe solar cells by sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 105, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

Zeman, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Lunt and V. Bulovic, “Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, “Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics. (1)

A. Kanevce and T. A. Gessert, “Optimizing CdTe solar cell performance: impact of variations in minority-carrier lifetime and carrier density profile,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics. 1(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

E. Colegrove, R. Banai, C. Blissett, C. Buurma, J. Ellsworth, M. Morley, S. Barnes, C. Gilmore, J. D. Bergeson, R. Dhere, M. Scott, T. Gessert, and S. Sivananthan, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells on buffered commercial TCO-coated glass,” J. Electron. Mater. 41(10), 2833–2837 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Aramoto, H. Ohyama, and S. Kumazawa, “16.0% efficient thin film CdS-CdTe solar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6304–6305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (Version38),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(5), 565–572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (2)

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, and H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rios-Flores, O. Arés, J. M. Camacho, V. Rejon, and J. L. Peña, “Procedure to obtain higher than 14% efficient thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells activated with HCF2Cl gas,” Sol. Energy 86(2), 780–785 (2012).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

N. R. Paudel, K. A. Wieland, and A. D. Compaan, “Ultrathin CdS/CdTe solar cells by sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 105, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Amin, K. Sopian, and M. Konagai, “Numerical modeling of CdS/CdTe and CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells as a function of CdTe thickness,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(13), 1202–1208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

L. A. Kosyachenko, A. I. Savchuk, and E. V. Grushko, “Dependence of efficiency of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell on parameters of absorber layer and barrier structure,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2386–2391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Peña, O. Ares, V. Rejon, A. Rios-Flores, J. M. Camacho, N. Romeo, and A. Bosio, “A detailed study of the series resistance effect on CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/Mo back contact,” Thin Solid Films 520(2), 680–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Khosroabadi and S. H. Keshmiri, “Design of high performance CdS/CdTe solar cells by optimization of step doping and thickness of the CdTe absorption layer,” in Proceedings of 21th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE) (Mashad, Iran, 2013), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, J. C. Keane, R. G. Dhere, C. DeHart, D. S. Albin, A. Duda, T. A. Gessert, S. Asher, D. H. Levi, and P. Sheldon, “16.5% Efficient CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cell” in Proceedings of 17th Conf. IEEE European Photovoltaic Solar Energy (Munich, Germany, 2001), pp. 995–1000.

First Solar Inc (2014), http://investor.firstsolar.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=828273 .

http://www.silvaco.com/products/device_simulation/atlas.html .

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the reference cell structure [4].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index for different materials.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction coefficient for different materials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic structure of the ultrathin cell with BSF layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated band diagram of the proposed cell with bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The DBR structure in ultrathin CdS/CdTe cell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflective spectra of the DBR structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorbance spectra of the DBR structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The Proposed structure with DBR on the back side of ZnO transparent contact.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Current density and power output of the CdS/CdTe solar cell for four structures at 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination for reference cell, ultrathin cell with BSF layer, ultrathin cell with DBR and BSF layers, and ultrathin cell with DBR and BSF layer with longer carrier lifetimes in the CdTe layer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

QE spectrum for the cells with and without back contacted DBR.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Basic parameters of the cell as a function of the CdTe layer’s carrier lifetime.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison between the Characteristics of the Reference Cell [4] and the Simulated Cell

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best Physical Parameters [24]

Tables Icon

Table 3 Output Parameters of the Reference and Different Simulated Cells

Equations (1)

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V OC = nkT q ln( J SC J o +1)

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