Abstract

We discuss the influence of V-pits and their energy barrier, originating from its facets of (101¯1) planes, on the luminescence efficiency of InGaN LEDs. Experimental analysis using cathodoluminescence (CL) exhibits that thin facets of V-pits of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) appear to be effective in improving the emission intensity, preventing the injected carriers from recombining non-radiatively with threading dislocations (TDs). Our theoretical calculation based on the self-consistent approach with adopting k⋅p method reveals that higher V-pit energy barrier heights in InGaN QWs more efficiently suppress the non-radiative recombination at TDs, thus enhancing the internal quantum efficiency (IQE).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Effect of V-shaped pit size on the reverse leakage current of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 34(11), 1409–1411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyper spectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurement of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, C. Lu, J. Lu, L. Liu, N. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, E. Gu, and X. Hu, “Influence of carrier screening and band filling effects on efficiency droop of InGaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14182–14187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010)
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. Redwing, “Effect of In surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. M. Redwing, “Effect of indium surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

I. Gorczyca, S. P. Lepkowski, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternary nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang, “Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Abell and T. D. Moustakas, “The role of dislocations as nonradiative recombination centers in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and R. M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Song, “Strain relaxation due to V-pit formation in InxGa1-xN/GaN epilayers grown on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 084906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductor,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Bere and A. Serra, “Atomic structure of dislocation cores in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 205323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abell, J.

J. Abell and T. D. Moustakas, “The role of dislocations as nonradiative recombination centers in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ade, G.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, B.-J.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, D.-K.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bere, A.

A. Bere and A. Serra, “Atomic structure of dislocation cores in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 205323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bian, L. F.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bremers, H.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruckbauer, J.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyper spectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, J. F.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S.

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Effect of V-shaped pit size on the reverse leakage current of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 34(11), 1409–1411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Influence of V-pit area on the leakage current, luminescence efficiency, and carrier capture of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” (In preparation).

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-P.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-R.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and R. M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.-W.

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. R.

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-C.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, N. E.

I. Gorczyca, S. P. Lepkowski, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternary nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crottini, A.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Danhof, J.

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurement of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deveaud, B.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyper spectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, “Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. M.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrmann, D.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funato, M.

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganiere, J. D.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Chen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and R. M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorczyca, I.

I. Gorczyca, S. P. Lepkowski, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternary nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greve, M.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Guo, E.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.-S.

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.-H.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hangleiter, A.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinze, P.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzel, F.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, L.

D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.-T.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-K.

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Humphreys, C. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahn, U.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D. S.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneta, A.

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurement of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

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J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Effect of V-shaped pit size on the reverse leakage current of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 34(11), 1409–1411 (2013).
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J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Influence of V-pit area on the leakage current, luminescence efficiency, and carrier capture of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” (In preparation).

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Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
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S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
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A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
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S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
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K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
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K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
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S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
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K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
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Lu, J.

Lu, T.-C.

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J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
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B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
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Y. C. Chen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and R. M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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Park, J.

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Effect of V-shaped pit size on the reverse leakage current of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 34(11), 1409–1411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
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J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Influence of V-pit area on the leakage current, luminescence efficiency, and carrier capture of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” (In preparation).

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
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A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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D. Fuhrmann, T. Retzlaff, M. Greve, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, A. Hangleiter, P. Hinze, and G. Ade, “Dislocation screening and strongly increased internal quantum efficiency in heteroepitaxial GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet-emitting quanum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073303 (2009).
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J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sachot, R.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schiavon, D.

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, U. T.

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurement of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Serra, A.

A. Bere and A. Serra, “Atomic structure of dislocation cores in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 205323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, G. D.

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.-W.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solowan, H. M.

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sonderegger, S.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-H.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, T. L.

T. L. Song, “Strain relaxation due to V-pit formation in InxGa1-xN/GaN epilayers grown on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 084906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

I. Gorczyca, S. P. Lepkowski, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternary nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svane, A.

I. Gorczyca, S. P. Lepkowski, T. Suski, N. E. Christensen, and A. Svane, “Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternary nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 80(7), 075202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tak, Y.

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Effect of V-shaped pit size on the reverse leakage current of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 34(11), 1409–1411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Influence of V-pit area on the leakage current, luminescence efficiency, and carrier capture of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” (In preparation).

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Laak, N. K.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductor,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. B.

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, C. Lu, J. Lu, L. Liu, N. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, E. Gu, and X. Hu, “Influence of carrier screening and band filling effects on efficiency droop of InGaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14182–14187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-C.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyper spectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Chen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and R. M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weng, X.

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. Redwing, “Effect of In surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. M. Redwing, “Effect of indium surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Won, D.

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. M. Redwing, “Effect of indium surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. Redwing, “Effect of In surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuh, H.-K.

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (17)

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and R. M. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on the hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Ahn, T.-S. Kim, Y. Dong, M.-T. Hong, J.-H. Song, J.-H. Song, H.-K. Yuh, S.-C. Choi, D.-K. Bae, and Y. Moon, “Experimental determination of current spill-over and its effect on the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue –light-emitting-diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “On the symmetry of efficiency-versus-carrier-concentration curves in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes and relation to droop causing mechanisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, T. Wang, and R. W. Martin, “High resolution cathodoluminescence hyper spectral imaging of surface features in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective bandgap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Abell and T. D. Moustakas, “The role of dislocations as nonradiative recombination centers in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, H.-W. Shim, J. W. Lee, D.-J. Kim, S. Yoon, Y. S. Kim, and S.-T. Kim, “Improvement of efficiency and electrical properties using intentionally formed V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. (1)

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Tak, S. Chae, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Effect of V-shaped pit size on the reverse leakage current of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 34(11), 1409–1411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Koike, S. Lee, S. R. Cho, J. Park, H. Lee, J.-S. Ha, S.-K. Hong, H.-Y. Lee, M.-W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency and reduction of leakage current in GaN based LED via V-pit formation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 449–451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and High-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. M. Redwing, “Effect of indium surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang, “Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Song, “Strain relaxation due to V-pit formation in InxGa1-xN/GaN epilayers grown on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 084906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Won, X. Weng, and J. Redwing, “Effect of In surfactant on stress relaxation by V-defect formation in GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductor,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (6)

U. Jahn, O. Brandt, E. Luna, X. Sun, H. Wang, D. S. Jiang, L. F. Bian, and H. Yang, “Carrier capture by threading dislocations in (In,Ga)N/GaN heteroepitaxial layers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bere and A. Serra, “Atomic structure of dislocation cores in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 205323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) FESEM image, (b) panchromatic intensity, monchromatic intensity (c) at 445 nm, and (d) at 390 nm. (e) TEM image of cross-section of MQW surface exhibiting small and large V-pits with TDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams for (a) large and (b) small open V-pits intersecting high and low In SLs and (c) and (d) corresponding energy diagram, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(color online) (a) Schematic diagrams for MQW structures with V-pits and related energy landscape. (b) Density of states (DOS2D), Fermi-Dirac distribution (f(E)), and carrier density (N2D) distribution exhibiting the portion of radiative (orange) and non-radiative (green) recombination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Band profiles of InGaN/GaN SQW structure with the layer sequence of 4/3/4 nm at the sheet carrier density (a) 1 × 1010 cm−2 and (b) 6.95 × 1012 cm−2. (c) The quasi-Fermi level ( E F CB ) (red-dashed line), the position of first conduction subband (CB1) (black-solid line), and V-pit potential energy barrier (blue-solid line) as a function of sheet carrier density in the InGaN/GaN SQW. The V-pit potential energy barrier is defined by a constant energy measured from the first conduction subband energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated radiative recombination rate Wrad and (b) the ratio of non-radiative carrier density ( n NR TD ) to total carrier density injected (ninj), in the InGaN/GaN SQW LEDs as a function of sheet carrier density (n2D) injected at T = 300 K. In the arrow direction, the V-pit potential energy barriers are varied from 20 meV to 180 meV by 40 meV increment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IQE curves of InGaN/GaN SQW LEDs with varying V-pit potential barrier heights as a function of current density.

Equations (2)

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IQE= η inj η rad
η rad =R W rad W SRH + W rad

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