Abstract

The enhancement of output intensity, the generation of polarized output, and the reduction of the efficiency droop effect in a surface plasmon (SP) coupled vertical light-emitting diode (LED) with an Ag nano-grating structure located between the p-GaN layer and the wafer bonding metal for inducing SP coupling with the InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) are demonstrated. In fabricating the vertical LED, the patterned sapphire substrate is removed with a photoelectrochemical liftoff technique. Based on the reflection measurement from the metal grating structure and the numerical simulation result, it is found that the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance induced around the metal grating crest plays the major role in the SP-QW coupling process although a hybrid mode of LSP and surface plasmon polariton can be generated in the coupling process. By adding a surface grating structure to the SP-coupled vertical LED on the n-GaN side, the output intensity is further enhanced, the output polarization ratio is further increased, and the efficiency droop effect is further suppressed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (7)

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (8)

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (9)

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akyol, F.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bertazzi, F.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremers, H.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, M.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Chang, W. M.

Chang, W. Y.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. F.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, W. H.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W. H.

Chung, W. L.

Cicek, E.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghione, G.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goano, M.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Hangleiter, A.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, L.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Huang, C. F.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Iza, M.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jönen, H.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. L.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kruse, A.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kunzer, M.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lan, C. C.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-W.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E.

R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-B.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. P.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

Lu, C. H.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, R.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nath, D. N.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Özgür, Ü.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, P. S.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pletschen, W.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rahnema, B.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, S.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, U.

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. H.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
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G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ting, S. Y.

Tu, C. G.

Vampola, K. J.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaxenburg, R.

R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. R.

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Vertical light-emitting diodes with surface gratings and rough surfaces for effective light extraction,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17686–17694 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. J.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. F.

C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. H. Lin, S. Y. Ting, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of patterned sapphire substrate for fabricating vertical light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1775–1777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, D. M.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Light extraction enhancement of a GaN-based light-emitting diode through grating-patterned photoelectrochemical surface etching with phase mask interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 640–642 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yim, S. Y.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. Y.

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger recombination in III-nitride nanowires and its effect on nanowire light-emitting diode characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (25)

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carriertransport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Brendel, A. Kruse, H. Jönen, L. Hoffmann, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Auger recombination in GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
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E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
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R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: A full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081106 (2013).
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Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Sapphire substrate liftoff with photoelectrochemical etching for vertical light-emitting diode fabrication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(10), 654–656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
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Nanotechnology (1)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1991).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic demonstration of the device structure of samples B-D and B’-D’. The designated coordinate system with the x-axis along the grating groove direction and the z-axis pointing at the Si substrate is also shown. (b) Schematic demonstration of the device structure of samples CB-CD and C’B-C’D. (c) Schematic demonstration of the device structure of samples Bt-Dt and B’t-D’t. The U-turn arrow at the bottom indicates the measurement scheme of reflection spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b): SEM and AFM images, respectively, of the grating on the p-GaN layer of sample B’. (c) and (d): SEM and AFM images, respectively, of the surface grating on the n-GaN layer of sample CB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output spectra of sample C’ when injection current is increased from 5 through 120 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized output intensities as functions of injection current for samples A-D, A’-D’, CB-CD, and C’B-C’D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized angle-dependent output intensities of samples A-D and A’-D’ in the y-z plane when injection current is 120 mA. The 0 and 90 degrees correspond to the -z and y directions, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variations of relative EQE with injection current of samples A-D, A’-D’, CB-CD, and C’B-C’D.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization ratios as functions of injection current of samples A-D, A’-D’, CB-CD, C’B-C’D, and E. The polarization ratio is defined as the output intensity in the y-polarization over that in the x-polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relations between current and applied voltage of samples A-D and A’-D’. The insert shows the magnification of a certain portion to differentiate those curves.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dispersion curves under the conditions of flat interface, interface gratings of 360, 520, and 680 nm in grating period (Λ) at an Ag/GaN interface. The horizontal dashed line represents the QW emission energy (545 nm in wavelength).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reflectance spectra from the sapphire side of samples Bt-Dt. A vertical dashed line is drawn to indicate the QW emission peak wavelength (545 nm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reflectance spectra from the sapphire side of samples B’t-D’t. A vertical dashed line is drawn to indicate the QW emission peak wavelength (545 nm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulation results of reflectance spectra with three grating periods at Λ = 360, 520, and 680 nm when the grating groove depth is 15 nm. For comparison, the reflectance spectrum of a flat Ag/GaN interface is also shown. The QW emission wavelength at 545 nm is marked by the vertical dashed line.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulation results of reflectance spectra with three grating periods at Λ = 360, 520, and 680 nm when the grating groove depth is 65 nm. For comparison, the reflectance spectrum of a flat Ag/GaN interface is also shown. The QW emission wavelength at 545 nm is marked by the vertical dashed line.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Intensity distributions of electric field at 545 nm around the grating crests for the cases of 15 nm [parts (a)-(c) for 360, 520, and 680 nm in grating period, respectively] and 65 nm [parts (d)-(f) for 360, 520, and 680 nm in grating period, respectively] in grating groove depth.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sample assignments, parameters, and their characterization results of samples A-D, A’-D’, and B’s-D’s. The relative output intensities are obtained when injection current is 120 mA. The numbers within the parentheses show the ratios with respect to the values of the individual reference samples (samples A and A’). IQE: internal quantum efficiency.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sample assignments, parameters, and their characterization results of samples C, C’, CB-CD, and C’B-C’D. The relative output intensities are obtained when injection current is 120 mA. The numbers within the parentheses show the ratios with respect to the values of the individual reference samples (samples C and C’ here).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Sample assignments and parameters of samples Bt-Dt and B’t-D’t.

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