Abstract

We demonstrate GaN-based thin light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on flexible polymer and paper substrates covered with chemical vapor deposited graphene as a transparent-conductive layer. Thin LEDs were fabricated by lifting the sapphire substrate off by Excimer laser heating, followed by transfer of the LEDs to the flexible substrates. These substrates were coated with tri-layer graphene by a wet transfer method. Optical and electrical properties of thin laser lift-offed LEDs on the flexible substrates were characterized under both relaxed and strained conditions. The graphene on paper substrates remained conducting when the graphene/paper structure was folded. The high transmittance, low sheet resistance and high failure strain of the graphene make it an ideal candidate as the transparent and conductive layer in flexible optoelectronics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible solar cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).
  5. Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Lu and Y. Xia, “Electronic materials: buckling down for flexible electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(3), 163–164 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Cocco, E. Cadelano, and L. Colombo, “Gap opening in graphene by shear strain,” Phys. Rev. B 81(24), 241412 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y.-H. Lee and Y.-J. Kim, “Electrical and lattice vibrational behaviors of graphene devices on flexible substrate under small mechanical strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

Y.-H. Lee and Y.-J. Kim, “Electrical and lattice vibrational behaviors of graphene devices on flexible substrate under small mechanical strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

2011 (3)

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cocco, E. Cadelano, and L. Colombo, “Gap opening in graphene by shear strain,” Phys. Rev. B 81(24), 241412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible solar cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

X. Lu and Y. Xia, “Electronic materials: buckling down for flexible electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(3), 163–164 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hasani, R.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amlani, I.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borysiak, M.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruchas, M. R.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueckner, E.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadelano, E.

G. Cocco, E. Cadelano, and L. Colombo, “Gap opening in graphene by shear strain,” Phys. Rev. B 81(24), 241412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.-M.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, M.

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choquette, K.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciriminna, R.

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible solar cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocco, G.

G. Cocco, E. Cadelano, and L. Colombo, “Gap opening in graphene by shear strain,” Phys. Rev. B 81(24), 241412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, L.

G. Cocco, E. Cadelano, and L. Colombo, “Gap opening in graphene by shear strain,” Phys. Rev. B 81(24), 241412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, J.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, M. D.

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duenas, T.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

Eisele, D. M.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, B.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hite, J. K.

Huang, X.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, X.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jo, G.

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. H.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahng, Y. H.

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B.-J.

Kim, D.-H.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-S.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-Y.

Kim, J.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Kim, S.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. I.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

Y.-H. Lee and Y.-J. Kim, “Electrical and lattice vibrational behaviors of graphene devices on flexible substrate under small mechanical strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kushner, V.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lee and Y.-J. Kim, “Electrical and lattice vibrational behaviors of graphene devices on flexible substrate under small mechanical strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, N.

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

X. Lu and Y. Xia, “Electronic materials: buckling down for flexible electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(3), 163–164 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, J. L.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastro, M. A.

McCall, J. G.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meitl, M. A.

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menard, E.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagliaro, M.

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible solar cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmisano, G.

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible solar cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Pei, S.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, S. T.

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, S.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, J. P.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Ren, W.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, G.

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A. C.

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Someya, T.

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, K. J.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulkin, J.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suo, Z.

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S. G.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, P.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trieu, S.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vanden Bout, D. A.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Weber, C. M.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

X. Lu and Y. Xia, “Electronic materials: buckling down for flexible electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(3), 163–164 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

Yu, T.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhi, L.

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. C. Siegel, S. T. Phillips, M. D. Dickey, N. Lu, Z. Suo, and G. M. Whitesides, “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(1), 28–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y.-H. Lee and Y.-J. Kim, “Electrical and lattice vibrational behaviors of graphene devices on flexible substrate under small mechanical strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on origami substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ahn, H.-S. Kim, E. Menard, K. J. Lee, Z. Zhu, D.-H. Kim, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, I. Amlani, V. Kushner, S. G. Thomas, and T. Duenas, “Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 213501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ChemSusChem (1)

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible solar cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. J. Lee, M. A. Meitl, J.-H. Ahn, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Bendable GaN high electron mobility transistors on plastic substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(12), 124507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

G. Jo, M. Choe, S. Lee, W. Park, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “The application of graphene as electrodes in electrical and optical devices,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 112001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

X. Lu and Y. Xia, “Electronic materials: buckling down for flexible electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(3), 163–164 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

J. G. McCall, T. I. Kim, G. Shin, X. Huang, Y. H. Jung, R. Al-Hasani, F. G. Omenetto, M. R. Bruchas, and J. A. Rogers, “Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Protoc. 8(12), 2413–2428 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Yang, C. Lee, J. Kim, F. Ren, and S. J. Pearton, “Flexible graphene-based chemical sensors on paper substrates,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(6), 1798–1801 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Cocco, E. Cadelano, and L. Colombo, “Gap opening in graphene by shear strain,” Phys. Rev. B 81(24), 241412 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 6, 421 (2012).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Sun, S. Trieu, T. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, P. Tian, J. Deng, X. Jin, and G. Zhang, “GaN-based LEDs with a high light extraction composite surface structure fabricated by a modified YAG laser lift-off technology and the patterned sapphire substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(8), 085008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

C. M. Weber, D. M. Eisele, J. P. Rabe, Y. Liang, X. Feng, L. Zhi, K. Müllen, J. L. Lyon, R. Williams, D. A. Vanden Bout, and K. J. Stevenson, “Graphene-based optically transparent electrodes for spectroelectrochemistry in the UV-Vis region,” Small 6(2), 184–189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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