Abstract

In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the simultaneous resonance from both nanoparticle layers. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in a total quantum efficiency of 62.35% for a 0.3 μm thick a-Si substrate.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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L. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, and W. E. I. Sha, “Broadband absorption enhancement of organic solar cells with interstitial lattice patterned metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, S.-M. Fu, Y.-K. Chung, S.-Y. Lai, and C.-W. Tseng, “An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, A131–A145 (2013).

M. Sarrazin, A. Herman, and O. Deparis, “First-principle calculation of solar cell efficiency under incoherent illumination,” Opt. Express 21, A616–A630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “Optimal design of light trapping in thin-film solar cells enhanced with graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure,” Opt. Express 20, 11121–11136 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient subwavelength light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Plasmonics 6, 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17, 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 3806–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Dahmen, B. Schmidt, and G. von Plessen, “Radiation damping in metal nanoparticle pairs,” Nano Lett. 7, 318–322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Noguez, “Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1204–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 397–407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 441–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549–10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 8, 581–583 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Express 8, 581–583 (1983).

1962

D. F. Swinehart, “The Beer-Lambert law,” J. Chem. Educ. 39, 333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient subwavelength light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Plasmonics 6, 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17, 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andres, R. P.

V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 441–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F. J.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, F.

F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, and W. E. I. Sha, “Broadband absorption enhancement of organic solar cells with interstitial lattice patterned metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, I. C.

C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, W. C. H.

L. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, and W. E. I. Sha, “Broadband absorption enhancement of organic solar cells with interstitial lattice patterned metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.-K.

A. Lin, S.-M. Fu, Y.-K. Chung, S.-Y. Lai, and C.-W. Tseng, “An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, A131–A145 (2013).

Dahmen, C.

C. Dahmen, B. Schmidt, and G. von Plessen, “Radiation damping in metal nanoparticle pairs,” Nano Lett. 7, 318–322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Villers, B. J. T.

M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

X. Deng and E. A. Schiff, Amorphous SiliconBased Solar Cells (John Wiley, 2005).

Deparis, O.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinh, X.-Q.

S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S.-M.

A. Lin, S.-M. Fu, Y.-K. Chung, S.-Y. Lai, and C.-W. Tseng, “An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, A131–A145 (2013).

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanarp, P.

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, C. L.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549–10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herman, A.

Ho, C.-I.

C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Jensen, T. R.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549–10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. R.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, P.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. W.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kall, M.

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, S. J.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, W. S.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient subwavelength light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Plasmonics 6, 155–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17, 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kottmann, J. P.

Kreibig, U.

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C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
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A. Lin, S.-M. Fu, Y.-K. Chung, S.-Y. Lai, and C.-W. Tseng, “An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, A131–A145 (2013).

Lee, J. P.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
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C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
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M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
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R. Santbergen, R. Liang, and M. Zeman, “A-Si: H solar cells with embedded silver nanoparticles,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010), pp. 748.

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A. Lin, S.-M. Fu, Y.-K. Chung, S.-Y. Lai, and C.-W. Tseng, “An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, A131–A145 (2013).

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
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Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
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S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
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S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
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S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malinsky, M. D.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549–10556 (2000).
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Martin, O. J. F.

Meier, M.

M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Express 8, 581–583 (1983).

M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 8, 581–583 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
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C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 3806–3819 (2007).
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C. Noguez, “Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1204–1211 (2005).
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M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 093117 (2011).
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Ouyang, Z.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
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R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
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H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
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H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
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H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
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M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
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S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
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P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
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C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
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J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 397–407 (2004).
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S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
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J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 397–407 (2004).
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S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Santbergen, R. Liang, and M. Zeman, “A-Si: H solar cells with embedded silver nanoparticles,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010), pp. 748.

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C. Dahmen, B. Schmidt, and G. von Plessen, “Radiation damping in metal nanoparticle pairs,” Nano Lett. 7, 318–322 (2007).
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P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
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M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
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M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, and W. E. I. Sha, “Broadband absorption enhancement of organic solar cells with interstitial lattice patterned metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
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Shen, Q.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
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P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
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C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 5768–5772 (2003).
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D. F. Swinehart, “The Beer-Lambert law,” J. Chem. Educ. 39, 333 (1962).
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G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C.-W.

A. Lin, S.-M. Fu, Y.-K. Chung, S.-Y. Lai, and C.-W. Tseng, “An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, A131–A145 (2013).

van de Groep, J.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549–10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
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P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
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U. Kreibig and M. Vollme, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995), vol. 25.
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C. Dahmen, B. Schmidt, and G. von Plessen, “Radiation damping in metal nanoparticle pairs,” Nano Lett. 7, 318–322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Express 8, 581–583 (1983).

M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 8, 581–583 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R.

Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xue, M.

M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D.-J.

C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yong, K.-T.

S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

H. Choi, J. P. Lee, S. J. Ko, J. W. Jung, H. Park, S. Yoo, O. Park, J. R. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Multipositional silica-coated silver nanoparticles for high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13, 2204–2208 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, K.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

R. Santbergen, R. Liang, and M. Zeman, “A-Si: H solar cells with embedded silver nanoparticles,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010), pp. 748.

Zeng, S.

S. Zeng, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, X.-Q. Dinh, X. Yu, and F. Luan, “A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Plasmonics 6, 491–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, J.

M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S. L.

A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Xu, M. Tazawa, P. Jin, S. Nakao, and K. Yoshimura, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric layers on silver island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3811–3813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, and W. E. I. Sha, “Broadband absorption enhancement of organic solar cells with interstitial lattice patterned metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Xue, L. Li, B. J. T. de Villers, H. Shen, J. Zhu, Z. Yu, A. Z. Stieg, Q. Pei, B. J. Schwartz, and K. L. Wang, “Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid plasmonic organic solar cells with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 253302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52, 397–407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I. C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Yang, R. Xu, and F. Yang, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles for light trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 176101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Educ.

D. F. Swinehart, “The Beer-Lambert law,” J. Chem. Educ. 39, 333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics

S. Wu, W. Wang, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells by two-dimensional periodic nanopatterns,” J. Nanophotonics 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

P. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. J. Haes, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanoscale optical biosensor: short range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6961–6968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 10549–10556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 3806–3819 (2007).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Perspective view of the solar cell with silver nanoparticle arrays on the surface and in the bulk. (b) Various parameters of the considered design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantum efficiency of various designs under consideration as a function of wavelength of light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field profile at different wavelengths inside the amorphous silicon substrate of Design 4. Field Distribution corresponds to wavelengths 547 nm, 666 nm, 799 nm and 1030 nm respectively are shown from left to right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of QE and TQE with change in inter particle layer separation

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of QE with wavelength for different (a) surface and (b) bulk layer particle radii.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation in TQE with change in surface and bulk layer nanoparticle radii

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Alignment of particles in bulk and surface array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of QE and TQE with change in the alignment of particles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

QE variation with wavelength for Design-1 and optimized Design 4

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications for the proposed design and reference designs (all dimensions are in nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of TQE of the proposed design with the other considered designs and their enhancement as compared to a-Si without nanoparticles

Equations (6)

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α = 3 V ( ε ε m ε + 2 ε m )
ε ( ω , D ) = ε I B + ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 + i ω γ ( D ) )
γ ( D ) = γ 0 + 2 ( A v F D )
C scat = 1 6 π ( 2 π λ ) 4 | α | 2
Q E ( λ ) = P abs ( λ ) P in ( λ ) .
TQE = λ 1 λ 2 λ h c Q E ( λ ) I A M 1.5 ( λ ) d λ λ 1 λ 2 λ h c I A M 1.5 ( λ ) d λ

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