Abstract

Efficiency droop is a major obstacle facing high-power application of InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, we report the suppression of efficiency droop induced by the process of density-activated defect recombination in nanorod structures of a-plane InGaN/GaN QWs. In the high carrier density regime, the retained emission efficiency in a dry-etched nanorod sample is observed to be over two times higher than that in its parent QW sample. We further argue that such improvement is a net effect that the lateral carrier confinement overcomes the increased surface trapping introduced during fabrication.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (10)

A. G. Smart, “New clues to LEDs' efficiency droop,” Phys. Today 66(7), 12–14 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Cho, E. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond--a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-Nitride/Organic Semiconductor Nanostructure with High Efficiency Nonradiative Energy Transfer for White Light Emitters,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3042–3047 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Davies, T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “High excitation carrier density recombination dynamics of InGaN/GaNquantum well structures: Possible relevance to efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 022106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13478–13487 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solid B 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurements of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, J. H. Choi, S. J. Lee, K. H. Baik, I. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, S. M. Hwang, and H. V. Demir, “Opposite carrier dynamics and optical absorption characteristics under external electric field in nonpolar vs. polar InGaN/GaN based quantum heterostructures,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5442–5450 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Development of Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN/GaN Visible Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 318–323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Oezguer, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akyol, F.

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
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Allsopp, D. W. E.

C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, T. J.

M. J. Davies, T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “High excitation carrier density recombination dynamics of InGaN/GaNquantum well structures: Possible relevance to efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 022106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

Bai, J.

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-Nitride/Organic Semiconductor Nanostructure with High Efficiency Nonradiative Energy Transfer for White Light Emitters,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3042–3047 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baik, K. H.

Banerjee, A.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botton, G. A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlin, J. F.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C. S.

C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
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Chang, S.-P.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
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Chen, J.-R.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
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Cheng, Y. C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. Cho, E. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
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Cho, Y. H.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
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Choi, J. H.

Choi, Y.-H.

F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
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Chung, K. S.

H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
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Chung, Y. Y.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
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Crawford, M. H.

Cross, K. C.

Crottini, A.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
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Cui, K.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
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Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solid B 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
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J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurements of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
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Davies, M. J.

M. J. Davies, T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “High excitation carrier density recombination dynamics of InGaN/GaNquantum well structures: Possible relevance to efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 022106 (2013).
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Dawson, P.

M. J. Davies, T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “High excitation carrier density recombination dynamics of InGaN/GaNquantum well structures: Possible relevance to efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 022106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
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Demir, H. V.

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
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D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Development of Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN/GaN Visible Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 318–323 (2009).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deveaud, B.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efros, A.

R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
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Evans, K. R.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121103 (2009).
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Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Oezguer, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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Fathololoumi, S.

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Development of Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN/GaN Visible Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 318–323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Figiel, J. J.

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganiere, J. D.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
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Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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Godfrey, M. J.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181127 (2011).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
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Hammersley, S.

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R.

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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Oezguer, U.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Oezguer, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
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X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
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B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13478–13487 (2012).
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F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121103 (2009).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
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H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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Schiavon, D.

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solid B 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solid B 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
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F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
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C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Oezguer, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-Nitride/Organic Semiconductor Nanostructure with High Efficiency Nonradiative Energy Transfer for White Light Emitters,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3042–3047 (2013).
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F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
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B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
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J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
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B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13478–13487 (2012).
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J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
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S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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Wu, M.

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121103 (2009).
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F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
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J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
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F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
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B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
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J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
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B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13478–13487 (2012).
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Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xue, F.

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13478–13487 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, G.

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13478–13487 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y.

C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3146–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (20)

F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111118 (2012).
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R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031120 (2013).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Oezguer, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 123506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
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S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
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M. J. Davies, T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “High excitation carrier density recombination dynamics of InGaN/GaNquantum well structures: Possible relevance to efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 022106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4375–4377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 111906 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083512 (2012).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Cho, E. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
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MRS Bull. (1)

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Development of Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN/GaN Visible Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 318–323 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1434–1438 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-Nitride/Organic Semiconductor Nanostructure with High Efficiency Nonradiative Energy Transfer for White Light Emitters,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3042–3047 (2013).
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W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1170 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
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Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurements of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035324 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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Phys. Status Solid B (1)

J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solid B 249(3), 480–484 (2012).
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Phys. Today (1)

A. G. Smart, “New clues to LEDs' efficiency droop,” Phys. Today 66(7), 12–14 (2013).
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Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
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Other (1)

C.-H. Chiu, D.-W. Lin, C.-C. Lin, Z.-Y. Li, W.-T. Chang, H.-W. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, W.-T. Liao, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “c,” Appl. Phys. Exp. 4 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lateral carrier confinement in QW nanorods. (a) Schematic sketch of the impact of lateral carrier confinement on the process of DADR (not in scale). (b) A SEM image of the nanorod sample. The average radius is ~130 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduced efficiency droop in the nanorod sample. (a) The normalized QW emission intensity per unit excitation power (logarithm scale) and (b) intensity ratio between the defect emission and QW emission are plotted versus excitation fluence. The data from the nanorod sample and the parent QW sample are compared. (c) PL emission spectra from the nanorod sample recorded under different excitation fluences. The dashed line indicates the fluence-dependent shift of the emission peak.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-integrated PL spectra from the nanorod sample and the parent QW sample recorded under the same excitation fluence at ~15 μJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transient optical evidence of lateral carrier confinement in nanorods. Normalized TRPL spectra recorded at the center wavelength of QW emission from (a) the nanorod sample and (b) the QW sample are shown in comparison with the profile of instrumental response function (IRF). Following the initial abrupt rise, the curves recorded from both samples exhibit a delayed-rise component. The amplitude (D) of delayed-rise component is marked from the kink point of the rising edge in the TRPL spectra. The red dashed lines are the curves fitting to single-exponential decay functions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Control experiments on the surface trapping effect. Time-resolved (a) and time-integrated (a, inset) PL spectra of three control samples (the c-plane QWs (c-MQW), as-etched QW nanorods (c-NR), and surface-passivated QW nanorods (c-NR-S) recorded under the same conditions are compared. The dashed line highlights the ultrafast decay component. (b) The normalized QW emission intensities per unit excitation power from the three samples are compared as a function of the excitation fluence.

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