Abstract

Electron overflow limits the quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes. InGaN electron cooler (EC) can be inserted before growing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) to reduce electron overflow. However, detailed mechanisms of how the InGaN EC contributes to the efficiency improvement have remained unclear so far. In this work, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate an electron mean-free-path model, which reveals the InGaN EC reduces the electron mean free path in MQWs, increases the electron capture rate and also reduces the valence band barrier heights of the MQWs, in turn promoting the hole transport into MQWs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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  8. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A PN-type quantum barrier for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15676–15685 (2013).
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  10. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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  11. X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
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  12. X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. F. Schubert and E. F. Schubert, “Effect of heterointerface polarization charges and well width upon capture and dwell time for electrons and holes above GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, and M. Cada, “Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1504–1506 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-dDoped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A PN-type quantum barrier for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15676–15685 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).

2011

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert and E. F. Schubert, “Effect of heterointerface polarization charges and well width upon capture and dwell time for electrons and holes above GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, and M. Cada, “Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arias, J.

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, and M. Cada, “Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bidinelli, L.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Botchkarev, A.

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bougrov, V. E.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Butendeich, R.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cada, M.

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, and M. Cada, “Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y.

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-J.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. W.

C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A PN-type quantum barrier for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15676–15685 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-dDoped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).

DenBaars, S. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dikme, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-dDoped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Esquivias, I.

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, and M. Cada, “Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. R.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, D. K.

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. S.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasanov, N.

Hu, W. D.

C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C.-H.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

Joshi, R. P.

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Z. G.

Kim, J. K.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kyaw, Z.

Lai, W.-C.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-L.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Q.

C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Lu, T.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
[CrossRef]

Matulionis, A.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meneghesso, G.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y. T.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mulholland, G.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. S.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, D. S. Han, J. S. Park, M. S. Oh, and D. Ahn, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with electron injector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(11), 115003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y. T.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romero, B.

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, and M. Cada, “Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1504–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saguatti, D.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salvador, A.

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert and E. F. Schubert, “Effect of heterointerface polarization charges and well width upon capture and dwell time for electrons and holes above GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert and E. F. Schubert, “Effect of heterointerface polarization charges and well width upon capture and dwell time for electrons and holes above GaInN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J.-K.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.-H.

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-dDoped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A PN-type quantum barrier for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15676–15685 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).

Sverdlov, B.

K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. T.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-dDoped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A PN-type quantum barrier for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15676–15685 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, W. Liu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Enhanced hole transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with a p-type doped quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 202–204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tong, J.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
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C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-C.

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
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E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
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I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
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T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
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T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
[CrossRef]

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T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
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T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
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C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
[CrossRef]

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T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
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Y. T. Rebane, Y. G. Shreter, B. S. Yavich, V. E. Bougrov, S. I. Stepanov, and W. N. Wang, “Light emitting diode with charge asymmetric resonance tunneling,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180(1), 121–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
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D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
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T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, K.

Zhou, Y.

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, A. Matulionis, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “InGaN staircase electron injector for reduction of electron overflow in InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031110 (2010).
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K. T. Tsen, R. P. Joshi, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Nonequilibrium electron distributions and phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(21), 2990–2992 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

T. Lu, S. Li, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Tong, L. Wu, H. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Yin, G. Xiao, and Y. Zhou, “Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141106 (2012).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C.-H. Jang, J.-K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, S.-J. Chang, W.-C. Lai, M.-L. Lee, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, and S. C. Shei, “Improved performance of GaN-based blue LEDs with the InGaN insertion layer between the MQW active layer and the n-GaN cladding layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 513–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN-GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-H. Shih, M.-C. Tsai, and J.-Y. Chang, “Improvement in electron overflow of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs by specific design on last barrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1630–1632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

D. Saguatti, L. Bidinelli, G. Verzellesi, M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, R. Butendeich, and B. Hahn, “Investigation of efficiency-droop mechanisms in multi-quantum-well InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(5), 1402–1409 (2012).
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M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

Other

C. S. Xia, Z. Q. Li, S. Yang, L. W. Cheng, W. D. Hu, and W. Lu, “Simulation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a non-local quantum well transport model,” 12th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD), 21–22(2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EL spectra for (a) LED I and (b) LED II under various injection current levels of 10, 20, 30 and 40 A/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimentally measured and (b) numerically simulated optical output power and EQE for LEDs I and II, along with the optical output power and EQE in the semi-log scale in the insets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic energy diagrams for (a) LED I and (b) LED II, along with which four electron transport/transition processes are depicted in the InGaN/GaN MQWs: ① electrons are captured into the quantum well, ② electrons recombine with holes and at defects, ③ electrons re-escape from the quantum well and ④ electrons directly fly over to a remote position without being captured by the quantum well.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated electric filed as a function of position within the EC layer at 20 A/cm2. The positive direction of the electric field is along the growth orientation, i.e., C + .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy band diagrams for (a) LED I and (b) LED II.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated (a) electron concentration along with the inset depicting the electron leakage out of the active region, (b) normalized electron current, (c) hole concentration, and (d) radiative recombination rates at 20 A/cm2 across the InGaN/GaN MQW region for LEDs I and II, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective Valence Band Barrier Heights of InGaN/GaN MQWs for LEDs I and II

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N t = N 0 ×[ 1exp( t QW / l MFP ) ]=( N 1 + N 2 )×[ 1exp( t QW / l MFP ) ]
M t = N 1 ×[ 1exp( t QW / l MFP ) ]+ N 2 ×[ 1exp( t QW / l MFP cooler ) ]
N 2 = N 0 ×[ 1exp( t cooler / l MFP ) ]
l M F P = v t h × τ S C
l M F P c o o l e r = v t h c o o l e r × τ S C
v t h = 2 × [ E + q V ] / m e
v t h c o o l e r = 2 × [ E + Δ E c ω L O + q V Δ E c ] / m e = 2 × [ E + q V ω L O ] / m e

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