Abstract

A new approach to surface roughening was established and optimized in this paper for enhancing the light extraction of high power AlGaInP-based LEDs, by combining ultraviolet (UV) assisted imprinting with dry etching techniques. In this approach, hexagonal arrays of cone-shaped etch pits are fabricated on the surface of LEDs, forming gradient effective-refractive-index that can mitigate the emission loss due to total internal reflection and therefore increase the light extraction efficiency. For comparison, wafer-scale FLAT-LEDs without any surface roughening, WET-LEDs with surface roughened by wet etching, and DRY-LEDs with surface roughened by varying the dry etching time of the AlGaInP layer, were fabricated and characterized. The average output power for wafer-scale FLAT-LEDs, WET-LEDs, and DRY3-LEDs (optimal) at 350 mA was found to be 102, 140, and 172 mW, respectively, and there was no noticeable electrical degradation with the WET-LEDs and DRY-LEDs. The light output was increased by 37.3% with wet etching, and 68.6% with dry etching surface roughening, respectively, without compromising the electrical performance of LEDs. A total number of 1600 LED chips were tested for each type of LEDs. The yield of chips with an optical output power of 120 mW and above was 0.3% (4 chips), 42.8% (684 chips), and 90.1% (1441 chips) for FLAT-LEDs, WET-LEDs, and DRY3-LEDs, respectively. The dry etching surface roughening approach developed here is potentially useful for the industrial mass production of wafer-scale high power LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  32. V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. C. Peng and Y. S. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Wang, W. Y. Fu, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Evaluation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes of circular geometry,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22311–22319 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

R.-H. Horng, T.-M. Wu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 238–241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Peng and Y. S. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aguanno, G. D.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M.-H.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, S. J.

S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bliznikas, Z.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bohler, G. H.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brazaityte, A.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Breive, K.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, C. S.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-S.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.-S.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
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Chiu, C.-H.

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J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

Choi, J.-H.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
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H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
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Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
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DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
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G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
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R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
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X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
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X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
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L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
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Fischer, A. J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. Y.

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
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X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 238–241 (2008).
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L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
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J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
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V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
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A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 238–241 (2008).
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R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. H.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. W.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
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R.-H. Horng, T.-M. Wu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
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Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, M. H.

Hsu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.-L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-Y.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. E.

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. H.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. K.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, C. C.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. G.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.-H.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-S.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-D.

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R.-H.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C. K.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, P. T.

Law, W. L.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-E.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.-S.

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. H.

S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, T.-F.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novickovas, A.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 238–241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. C.

W. C. Peng and Y. S. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pop, E.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raineri, F.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raj, R.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roppo, V.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schoberth, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.-B.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. W.

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. A.

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suh, K. Y.

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamulaitis, G.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. A.

Tu, S. J.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ulinskaite, R.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vilaseca, R.

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

Weisbuch, C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-M.

R.-H. Horng, T.-M. Wu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. S.

W. C. Peng and Y. S. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D.-S.

R.-H. Horng, T.-M. Wu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L. J.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. S.

Yoo, P. J.

S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, E.-S.

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

Yun, D. K.

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, T.

L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

Žukauskas, A.

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

H.-H. Park, W. L. Law, X. Zhang, S.-Y. Hwang, S. H. Jung, H.-B. Shin, H. K. Kang, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and C. K. Ko, “Facile size-tunable fabrication of functional tin dioxide nanostructures by multiple size reduction lithography,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2507–2514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, K. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Dobule embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Peng and Y. S. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Cao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Y. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, and E.-S. Lee, “UV-curable nanoimprint resin with enhanced anti-sticking property,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(15), 4793–4796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Y.-C. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, B.-S. Cheng, C.-E. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, T.-F. Liao, and C.-S. Chang, “Enhanced light extraction in wafer-bonded AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes via micro- and nanoscale surface textured,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(10), 1054–1056 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. J. Chen, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Kao, “Light output improvement of AlGaInP-based LEDs with nano-mesh ZnO layers by nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(6), 383–385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Bohler, and P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. J. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for sub-100-nm lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(25), 7744–7745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

K. Y. Suh, H. E. Jeong, D.-H. Kim, R. A. Singh, and E.-S. Yoon, “Capillarity-assisted fabrication of nanostructures using a less permeable mold for nanotribological applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 034303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

L. J. Yan, C. C. Yang, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. S. Chang, and J. K. Sheu, “AlGaInP/GaP heterostructures bonded with Si substrate to serve as solar cells and light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(4), H452 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R.-H. Horng, T.-M. Wu, and D.-S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (3)

H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, X. Zhang, S. Jeon, S.-J. Park, S.-W. Lee, S. Kim, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, D. K. Yun, K. J. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Photo-induced hybrid nanopatterning of titanium dioxide via direct imprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1921–1926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Park, X. Zhang, S.-W. Lee, K.-D. Kim, D.-G. Choi, J.-H. Choi, J. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-H. Park, R. H. Hill, and J.-H. Jeong, “Facile nanopatterning of zirconium dioxide films via direct ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(3), 657–662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, T. Zhai, H. Zeng, X. Fang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Polystyrene sphere-assisted one-dimensional nanostructure arrays: synthesis and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(1), 40–56 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Tamulaitis, P. Duchovskis, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breivė, R. Ulinskaitė, A. Brazaitytė, A. Novičkovas, and A. Žukauskas, “High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(17), 3182–3187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R.-H. Kim, M.-H. Bae, D. G. Kim, H. Cheng, B. H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, M. Li, J. Wu, F. Du, H.-S. Kim, S. Kim, D. Estrada, S. W. Hong, Y. Huang, E. Pop, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable, transparent graphene interconnects for arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes on rubber substrates,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3881–3886 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 238–241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Roppo, C. Cojocaru, F. Raineri, G. D. Aguanno, J. Trull, Y. Halioua, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, R. Vilaseca, and M. Scalora, “Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of (a) the AlGaInP-based epi-structure, and the metal-bonding AlGaInP-based (b) FLAT-LEDs, (c) WET-LEDs, and (d) DRY-LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the fabrication procedure for the DRY-LEDs, combination of UV-NIL with dry etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tilted-view and cross-sectional SEM images of the n+-GaAs contact layer and n-AlGaInP layer for the (a) DRY1-LEDs, (b) DRY2-LEDs, (c) DRY3-LEDs, and (d) DRY4-LEDs. (e) Histogram graphs of optical output power for the wafer-scale DRY1-LEDs, DRY2-LEDs, DRY3-LEDs, and DRY4-LEDs at an injection current of 350 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration of the surface nanopatterns of the DRY1-LEDs, DRY2-LEDs, DRY3-LEDs, and DRY4-LEDs. (b) Gradient effective-refractive-index in the patterned layer of DRY-LEDs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output power-current-voltage characteristics of the chip-scale FLAT-LEDs, WET-LEDs, and DRY3-LEDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Room-temperature EL spectra of the chip-scale FLAT-LEDs, WET-LEDs, and DRY3-LEDs at the forward current of 350 mA. Light emitting images of the (b) FLAT-LEDs, (c) WET-LEDs, and (d) DRY3-LEDs at an injection current of 1 mA at 298 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mapping results of optical output power for the wafer-scale (a) FLAT-LEDs, (b) WET-LEDs, and (c) DRY3-LEDs. (d) Histogram graphs of optical output power for the wafer-scale FLAT-LEDs, WET-LEDs, and DRY3-LEDs at an injection current of 350 mA.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Top-view and cross-sectional view SEM images of the roughened surface on (a) a DRY3-LED chip and (b) a WET-LED chip. Top-view SEM images of the roughened surface on (c) another DRY3-LED chip and (d) another WET-LED from each sample wafer. Images in (a) and (c) illustrate the uniform surface roughening by UV-NIL combined with dry etching while those in (b) and (d) show the non-uniform surface roughening by wet etching.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and performance of different wafer-scale DRY-LEDs obtained by varying the dry etching time (Light output power was measured at an injection current of 350 mA).

Metrics